Brychan Documents

The Situation of Brecheniauc (De Situ Brecheniauc)
Link to full document as a pdf from Lives of the Cambro British Saints,
William Jenkins Rees (1853)

Brecheniauc received its name first from Brachan. In the beginning, Teuderic was king of that district. He formerly came to Garth Madrun, and from there proceeded with chiefs and elders and all his familia, and went to Brancoyn, near Lann Maies. And Teuderic said to Marchell, his daughter,"The severity of the cold afflicts us exceedingly. Wherefore it is worth the trouble to procure for my daughter a fur garment, however far we may search, lest she should be overcome with the rigor of the cold. For I will send her across into Hibernia with three hundred men to Anlac, son of Coronac, king of that country, that she may be married to him."

Marchell therefore set forth with three hundred men for Lan Semin, and there on the fìrst night a hundred men died from the intensity of the cold. And on the second night she came to Methrum, and there as many died as on the former occasion. And on the third night she went down to Port Maur, a place which was much warmer. And then with the hundred men left to her, she sailed across to Hibernia, and came in safety with her followers to Anlac, king of that country.

He received her with much dancing and joy, and betrothed her to himself to be his lawful wife, giving her an oath that if she should bear him a son, he would return with her to Brittannia, that the boy might not be deprived of his ancestral kingdom in Brittannia. And the said Anlach gave waiting-women in marriage to his twelve chamberlains or men, to each a damsel apiece, according to the dignity of their birth.

And afterwards Marchell brought forth a son and called him Brachan. Anlach therefore returned with Queen Marchell and the boy Brachan, and the following chiefs: Kerniol; and secondly, Fernach, from whom Enifernach is named; thirdly, Lith milich, from whom is named Maiuawr oper birnich; fourthly, Lounoic. Brachan was born in Benni, and was sent to Drichan, from whom is named Din Drichan. And it was this Drichan who brought up Brachan (from whom is derived the expression Brachan Brecheniauc).

When he was four years of age. And in his seventh year Drichan said to Brachan,"Bring me my lance."Now Drichan, towards the close of his life, became blind. And as he lay awake, a certain boar came from the wood and stood near the bank of the river Ischir. And behind it in the river was a stag, and under the stag's belly a fish, which three things portended that Brachan would be fortunate in abundance of wealth. Moreover, there was a beech tree standing on the side of the said river, in which bees were making honey, and Drichan said to Brachan, his charge,"Behold, I give thee this tree full of bees and honey, and also of silver and gold, and may the grace of God and his love abide with thee always, here and hereafter."

And after this Anlach gave his son Brachan as hostage to the king of Powys, and afterwards, in process of time, Brachan violated Banadlinet, the daughter of Benadel. And she became pregnant and bore a son, Kynauc by name, who was carried to the caer and baptized. After this, Brachan took a torque from his arm and gave it to his son Kynauc. That saint Kynauc is very celebrated in his own patria of Brecheniauc, and that torque is preserved to the present time in the said province among its most precious relics.

This is the genealogy of saint Kynauc the son of Brachan; Brachan son of Marchell; Marchell daughter of Teuderic; Teudiric son of Teudfall; Teudfall son of Teuder, son of Teudfal; Teudfal son of Annhun, king of the Greeks.

These are the names of the sons of Brachan of Brecheniauc:

  • 1. Rein son of Brachan;
  • 2. Clytguin son of Brachan, who invaded the whole country of South Wales; (1) Saint Clydouc and (2) Saint Dedyu, sons of that Clytguein;
  • 3. Arthen son of Brachan;
  • 4. Papay son of Brachan;
  • 5. Kynon son of Brachan, who is a saint in the western part of the said Mannia;
  • 6. Dynigat son of Brachan;
  • 7. Paschen son of Brachan;
  • 8. Chybliuer son of Brachan, from whom is named Merthyr Chebliuer;
  • 9. Berwin son of Brachan in Corwallia;
  • 10. Rydoch (ì.e. Judoc) son of Brachan in Francia, from whom is named Ton Eidoch Windouith (i.e. eurus de vent).

Of the daughters of Brachan:

  • 1. Glaclus daughter of Brachan and mother of saint Cadoc;
  • 2. Tudeuel daughter of Brachan, in Merthir Euineil;
  • 3. Goleu daughter of Brachan in Laneschin;
  • 4. Hunyd daughter of Brachan, who lies under the stone of Meltheu and was wife of Tudual Flauus [viz. Pefr] and mother of Cunin Cof (i.e. memory);
  • 5. Tudhistil daughter of Brachan, from whom is named Merthir Tudhistil;
  • 6. Tibyei, daughter of Brachan, in Cantrebochan; Kehingayr daughter of Brachan, mother of Saint Kenider of Glesbyri;
  • 7. Meleri daughter of Brachan, wife of Keredic and mother of Sant, and Sant was the father of Saint David;
  • 8. Tutglid daughter of Brachan, wife of Kenken son of Kenwaur Cadcathuc and mother of Cadel and Brochuail schitrauc (i.e. with teeth) and mother of Jeuab and mother of Meigh and mother of Sanand which Sanant was wife of Mahelgun King of North Wales;
  • 9. Aranwen daughter of Brachan in Powis wife of Gereuerth King of Powis, from whom is the name Joruerthiaun;
  • 10. Befchan daughter of Brachan in Mannia; Luan daughter of Brachan, mother of Haidan Bradouc (i.e. treacherous);
  • 11. Kerdych daughter of Brachan who lies in Tywin in Merioneth;
  • 12. Nyuein daughter of Brachan, wife of Kenuarch cul son of Meirchiaun, mother of [Urien (text very corrupt, Anscombe reads as follows) and Euerdil, wife of Elidir Coscoruaur, i.e. of great retinue, and mother of Gurgi and Peredur and Estedich];
  • 13. Guaur, daughter of Brachan wife of Lidanwen and mother of Loarch Hen (i.e. old); Gurycon Godheu daughter of Brachan, wife of Cathraut Calchuynid; Marchell daughter of Brachan, wife of Gurind barmbtruch (i.e. of the trun- cated beard) of Merionyth; Guen daughter of Brachan in Talgarth; Belyau daughter of Brachan; Eiliueth daughter of Brachan in Crug Gors Auail (i.e. the Mound of the Holding's Mere?); Kein daughter of Brachan in the holding of the Ogmor (i.e. within the two branches of that river);
  • 14. Keneython daughter of Brachan in the mountain of Ceuor in Kedweli;
  • 15. Clydei daughter of Brachan is in Emelin;
  • 16. Duyn daughter of Brachan is in Monia (i.e. in Anglesey);
  • 17. Jlud daughter of Brachan.

The tomb of Brachan is in the island which is called Enysbrachan, which is near Mannia. The tomb of Rein the son of Brachan [is] in Landeuailac. The tomb of Kanauc [is] Merthir [Cynog] in Brecheniauc. The tomb of Anlauch [is] before the door of the church of Lanespetit. Brachan had three wives, to wit, Praust, Ribraust, and Proistri.

This is the progeny of Keredic, king of Keredigan: Dewi son of Sant; Sant son of Keredic son of Cuneda; Auan buelh son of Kedic son of the same Keredic: Pedyr Lanwaur, son of Corin son of Keredic; Kenider Gell son of Kynon son of Keredic; Gunlyu son of Guaur daughter of Keredic; Gugan Cledyburdh son of Lauch son of Lucho son of Kedich son of Keredic; Jna daughter of Keredic; Karanouc son of Keredic; Dyuennen son of Anhun son of Keredic; Saint Keneu son of Corun son of Keredic; Gugan son of Samson son of Keredic; Saint Dogmael son of Jthaeil son of Keredic; saint Tydiuc son of Corun son of Keredic.

The Family of Brecheniauc (Cognacio Brychan)

The Family of Brychan, from whom was named Brecheyniawc, a part of Demetia, that is, South Wales.

Teudric, king in Garth Madrun, came as far as Bryncoyn, near Laninaes, with chiefs and elders, and all his familia, having an only daughter, Marchell by name, to whom he said, "I fear concerning thy safety, because of the present pestilence which aflicts us". (To avoid which the said Marchell had a kind of girdle made of the skin of an animal, for there was an opinion that whosoever should place the skin of an animal round his loins, would escape death f rom pestilence.) "Wherefore start out for Hibernia if perchance God should respect my wish that thou mayst live."

And her father assigned to her three hundred men and twelve maidens, daughters of the architriclinus, as attendants, all of whom accompanied her thither. And as Marchell was on her journey, she was entertained the first night at Llansemyn, and that night a hundred men died there. In the morning she arose cursing the place of that habitation, and started forth fretting with the sense of danger and remorse, and on the second night she arrived at Madrun, and as on the former occasion a hundred men died there. In the ìnorning she arose as quickly as possible, and on the third night arrived at Porthmaur, and the death of her men having been avoided, she came with her hundred men and her attendants to Hibernia.

When her arrival was discovered, there met her Anlach, son of Gormac, king of that place, with a great following, as became a king. And when the reason of her arrival was known, King Anlach was glad, and took her to be his wife, both on account of her beauty and on account of her lineage, she being a king's daughter.

And King Anlach vowed that he would return with her to Britannia if she bore him a son. And King Anlach wedded the said twelve maidens, giving away each one of them in marriage. And it happened in the course of time that Marchell conceived and brought forth a son, to whom the father gave the name of Brachan.

Now when Brachan was two years old, his parents brought him to Britannia and they sojourned at Benny. And Drichan took the boy to be fostered, and he was with him seven years.

Afterwards a war arose between the kings, and his father gave him as hostage to the King of Powys whose name was Banadyl; where during his sojourn he violated the daughter of the said king, whose name was Banadylued. She conceived and brought forth a son, whom he caused to be carried to saint Gastayn, whose church is now situated by Mara. He baptized him and called his named Kynauc. Now all knew that he was Brichan's son from the cap and torque with which Kynauc had been vested.

This is his pedigree: Kynauc son of Brachan son of Anlach son of Gornuc son of Eurbre of Hibernia, and so far on the father's side. On the mother's, Brichan son of Marchell daughter of Teudric son of Teithphal son of Teithrin son of Tathal son of Annun the Black, King of the Greeks. Afterwards, when Brachan was increasing in virtues, the war ceased and peace was restored between the kings. After some time his father Anlach died, who while Brychan was aspiring to the kingdom of his parents, assembled the nobles of his kingdom to discuss concerning his succession. They, beholding so much diligence, grace and nobleness shining in [Brachan], raised him to be king. Whilst he was reigning with luster and ordering the kingdom which he had received, with greatest care, he married three wives in succession, whose names are these: Eurbraust, Rybraust and Proestri, from whom he had a large progeny; to wit, thirteen sons, whose names are these:

  • 1. Kynauc;
  • 2. Rein Vrem Rud, who reigned after his father;
  • 3. Ctytwyn, the conqueror of the Deheubarth [South Wales], who was the father of the saints Clydauc and Dettu;
  • 4. Arthen, who was the father of Kynon, who is in Manan;
  • 5. Papay;
  • 6. Run, himself a saint ycallet (?) in Manan;
  • 7. Marthaerun in Keveilauc;
  • 8. Vingat in Llandeuery, who was father of Pascent;
  • 9. Kyfliuer, from whom is called Merthyr Kyíliuer;
  • 10. Berwyn in Cornubia;
  • 11. Ridoc Gwindouut in Francia, whence is named the Hill of Eidoc Gwindouut.

Also twenty-four daughters, whose names are these:

  • 1. Gluadis daughter of Brachan, wife of Gwenlluc, son of Glywys Cornubiensis and mother of St. Cadoc;
  • 2. Gloyv in Llauheskyn;
  • 3. [Hunyd wife of] Tutwal Pefir and mother of Cunin Cof;
  • 4. Tutbistyl, from whom is named Merthyr Tutbystil;
  • 5. Tvtuil, from whom is named Merthyr Tutuil;
  • 6. Tebie in Ystrad Towi;
  • 7. Keyngair mother of St. Kenyder;
  • 8. Meleri wife of Keretic, father of St. David;
  • 9. Tuglit wife of Kyngain mother of Cadell;
  • 10. Arganwen in Powys;
  • 11. Bechan in Manav;
  • 12. Lluan mother of Aidan Grutauc and mother of Gafran Vradavc;
  • 13. Kerdech in Llandegwin;
  • 14. Nyuen wife of Kynvarch son of Meirchyavn;
  • 15. Gwawr wife of Lledan Wyn mother of Llywarch Hen;
  • 16. Grucon Guedu wife of Cradauc Calchvenit;
  • 17. Marchell wife of Gurgeynt;
  • 18. Elyuet in Mount Gorsauael who was martyred for the love of chastity;
  • 19. Gwen in Talgarth;
  • 20. Koneidon in Kydwely on the mountain of Kyfor;
  • 21. Keinbreit in the holding of the Ogur;
  • 22. Cledei in Emlyn;
  • 23. Vndin in the island of Monia;
  • 24. Kenedlon on Mount Kymorth.

Grichan lies in Mynav, in the valley which is called the valley of Brchan. Anllach lies before the door of the church of Llanyspydyt. Eeyn son of Brichan lies in Llanvayloc. The tomb of Kynauc is in Merthyr Kynauc in Brecheiniawc.


The Sons of Brychan.

The three leading authorities, i.e. the De Situ, the Cog- nacio and Jesus College MS. 20 agree as to the following eight sons:

  • 1. Kynauc the saint of Merthyr Cynog.
  • 2. Rein Dremrud who succeeded his father [cf. Cair Eein = Aconbury Hill, in Herefordshire, Book of Llandav].
  • 3. Clytguin conqueror of the Deheubarth [cf. Llanglydwyn in West Carmarthenshire] father of
    • (a) St. Clydauc [Clodock on River Munnow in Herefordshire] .
    • (b) St. Dettu [Llandetty on River Usk in Breconshire] .
  • 4. Arthen [cf. Llanarthen, west of Marshfield in S.W. Monmouthshire] .
  • 5. Papay.
  • 6. Dynigat in Llandovery [cf. also Merthir Dincat = Dingestow (Mon.), Book. of Llandav].
  • 7. Berwin in"Cornwallia".
  • 8. Rydoc in"Francia", etc.

They disagree as to the following three names which, however, they all regard as those of Brychanites:

  • 9. Kynon [ap Brychan D.S. and JC 20.; ap Arthen Cog.]
  • 10. Pascent [ap Brychan D.S.; ap Dingat Cog. and JC 20.]
  • 11. Cyflifer [ap Brychan D.S. and Cog.; ap Dingat JC 20.]

Both the Cognacio and JC 20 introduce these two additional narnes, which are unnumbered:

  • Marthaerun Cog. or Marcharairjun JC 20. in Cyfeiliog.
  • Run Cog. or Runan JC 20. in Manan or Manaw.

The Daughters of Brychan.

Our three authorities are agreed as to all the married daughters of Brychan, eleven in number:

  • 1. Gladus wife of Gwynllwg and mother of St. Cadoc.
  • 2. Hunyd wife of Tudwal Pefr and mother of St. Cynin.
  • 3. Kehingayr mother of St. Cynidr of Glasebury.
  • 4. Meleri wife of Ceredig [Cedig?], mother of Sant, St. David's father.
  • 5. Tutglid wife of Kenken son of Kenwaur Cadcathuc, mother of Cadell, etc.
  • 6. Aranwen in Powys, wife of Iorwerth Hirflawdd, whence Iorwerthion.
  • 7. Luan mother of Aidan Bradouc.
  • 8. Nyuein wife of Cynfarch Cul, niother of Urien.
  • 9. Guaur wife of [Elidyr] Llydanwyn, ìnother of Llywarch Hen.
  • 10. Gurycon Godheu wife of Cadrod Calchfynydd.
  • 11. Marchell wife of Gwrin Barfdrwch of Meirionydd.

They are also agreed as to the following nine un- married daughters:

  • 12. Tudeuel in Merthyr Tydvil [and Llysworney. Cf. also Hafod Tydvil in the Gwaun valley, N. Pem.]
  • 13. Tudhistil in Merthyr Tudhistil [wherever this may be. Cf. Llanawstl in Machen (Monmouthshire)]
  • 14. Tibyei in Llandybie, Carmarthenshire [also Lamphey (Pem.), etc.]
  • 15. Kerdych at Towyn in Merioneth.
  • 16. Guen in Talgarth.
  • 17. Kein in Llangeinor, Glam. [This is Kein Wyry', or Keyne the Virg-in of Keynsham (Somerset), Kentchurch (Herefordshire), etc].
  • 18. Keneython in Llang-ynheiddon on Mt. Cyfor at Kidweli.
  • 19. Clydei in Clydey in Emlyn, N.E. Pem.
  • 20. Duyn m Anglesey at Llanddwyn.

The following- four appear in at least two of our authorities:

  • 21. Goleu in Laneschin [cf. Glan Hesg-yn in Llanfair Culg-udden (Monmouthshire) JC 20 appears to have this name erroneously prefixed to Hunyd under the form Goleudyd gwreic Tutwawl Beper]
  • 22. Eiliueth on the hill, once known as Cruc Gors Auail near Brecon. [Gerald's Itinerary, i, 2. JC 20's Felis may represent this saint.]
  • 23. Bethan in Mannia. [D.S. and Cog.]
  • 24. Ilud in Llanilid, Hhuthyn, Glam. D.S. and JC 20]

The following, which are unnumbered, only appear in one of our three authorities, and with the exception of Belyau are clearly intended to complete the traditional number of twenty-four.

  • Belyau. D.S. only.
  • Kenedlon apud Mynyd Kymorth. Cog. only. This is merely a repetition of Koneidon apud Kydwely in monte Kyfor. No. 18.
  • Tutlith yn Llys Eonwy ygwlat vorgan. JC 20 only. A hybrid form of Tutglid and Tydfil. The addition, however, is interesting and refers to Lisworney near Cowbridge. Lewis in his Top. Dict. of Wales (1833) says that the church of Llysworney is "dedicated" to St. Tydfil. See also p. xlvj in the excellent appendices to John Griffith's Ediuard II in Glamorgan (1904).
  • Rinhidyr a mistake for St. Cynidr son of Kehingayr daughter of Brychan. JC 20 only.
The above is from "Brychan Documents" in Y Cymmrodor vol 19 (pdf)

A less reliable source:

OF THE SITUATION OF BRECKNOCK (The account of Brychan Brycheiniog, and his kindred) , contained in:
Cotton MSS. in the British Museum. Vespasian A XIV written in the year 900, printed in:
Lives of the Cambro British saints. Pub. for the Welsh Mss. Society, Rees, William Jenkins (1853) pp 602-608

Saint Cynog, the son of Brychan. Brychan was the son of Marchell, Marchell, was the daughter of Tewdrig, Tewdrig was the son of Teudfall, Teudfall was the son of Tewdwr, Tewdwr was the son of Teudfall, Teudfall was the son of Anhun, king of the Greeks.

These are the names of the sons of Brychan of Brecknock:

  • 1. Rhun, son of Brychan.
  • 2. Cludwyn, son of Brychan, who invaded all the country of South Wales; Saint Clydoc, and Saint Dedyn were sons of this Cludwyn.
  • 3. Arthen, son of Brychan.
  • 4. Papay, son of Brychan.
  • 5. Cynon, son of Brychan, who was a Saint in the western part of that district.
  • 6. Dingad, son of Brychan.
  • 7. Pasgen, son of Brychan.
  • 8. Cynlevyr, son of Brychan, whence the name Merthyr Cynlevyr.
  • 9. Berwyn, son of Brychan, in Cornwall.
  • 10. Cydoc or Iddog, son of Brychan in France, whence a place is called Ton Ridoch of the wind Windworth.

Of the daughters of Brychan:

  • 1. Gwladus, daughter of Brychan, mother of Saint Cadoc.
  • 2. Tydvil, daughter of Brychan, in Merthyr Tydvil.
  • 3. Goleu, daughter of Brychan, in Llaneskin.
  • 4. Hynyd, daughter of Brychan, who lies buried under the rock Melthren, and was wife to Tudval the yellow-haired, and mother of Cuincov.
  • 5. Tudhistel, daughter of Brychan, whence the name Merthyr Tudhistel.
  • 6. Tybie, daughter of Brychan, in Cantrev Bychan.
  • 7. Rhiengar, daughter of Brychan, mother of Saint Cynider of Glasbury.
  • 8. Meleri, daughter of Brychan, wife of Ceredig, and mother of Sandde, and Sandde was the father of David.
  • 9. Tudglyd, daughter of Brychan, wife of Cyngen, son of Cynvor.
  • 10. Cadaethog, the mother of Cadell, and Brochwel Ysgythrog, and mother of Ieuav, and mother of Mugh, and mother of Sanans; which Sanans was wife of Maelgwn, king of North Wales.
  • 11. Arianwen, daughter of Brychan, in Powys, wife of Iorwerth, king of Powys, whence the name Iorwerthiawn.
  • 12. Beithan, daughter of Brychan, in the isle of Man.
  • 13. Lleian, daughter of Brychan, mother of Aeddan Vradog.
  • 14. Ceindrych, daughter of Brychan, who lies in Towyn, in Merionethshire.
  • 15. Nevyn, daughter of Brychan, wife of Cynvarch, son of Meirchion Gul, mother of Urien, mother of Eurddylad, mother of Estedich, wife of Elidir Gosgorddvawr, and mother of Gwrgi and Peredur, mother-in-law of Elidir.
  • 16. Gwawr, daughter of Brychan, wife of Lydanwyn, and mother of Llywarch Hen.
  • 17. Gwrgon Goddeu, daughter of Brychan, wife of Cadrodd Calchvynydd.
  • 18. Marchell, daughter of Brychan, wife of Gynir Varvdrwch of Merioneth.
  • 19. Gwen, daughter of Brychan, in Talgarth.
  • 20. Belyau, daughter of Brychan.
  • 21. Ciliveth, daughter of Brychan, in Gruggors avail.
  • 22. Rein, daughter of Brychan, of Travil Ogmor.
  • 23. Cedeython, 1 daugther of Brychan, in the mountain Cyvor, in Kidwelly.
  • 24. Clydei, daughter of Brychan, is in Emlyn.
  • 25. Dewyn, daughter of Brychan, is in Mon or Anglesey.
  • 26. Ilud, daughter of Brychan.
  • This is the progeny of Ceredig, king of Ceredigion:

    • 1. David, the son of Sandde, Sandde was the son of Ceredig, son of Cunedda.
    • 2. Avail Buallt, the son of Cedig, son of the said Ceredig.
    • 3. Pedyr Llanvawr, the son of Corin, son of Ceredig.
    • 4. Cynider Gell, the son of Cynan, son of Ceredig.
    • 5. Gwynllyw, the son of Gwawr, son of Ceredig.
    • 6. Gloyncleddybwrdd the son of Llaweh, son of Llueho, son of Cedig, son of Ceredig.
    • 7. Ina, the daughter of Ceredig.
    • 8. Caranog, the son of Ceredig.
    • 9. Dyvennen, the son of Anhun, son of Ceredig.
    • 10. Saint Ceneu, the son of Corun, son of Ceredig.
    • 11. Gwgan, the son of Samson, son of Ceredig.
    • 12. Saint Dogmael, the son of Ithael, son of Ceredig.
    • 13. Saint Tydiwc, the son of Corun, son of Ceredig.

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