The Life of Saint Cadog

written shortly before 1086 by Lifris of Llancarfan (MS. Cotton Vesp. A xiv)
(Life of St. Cadoc in Lives of the Cambro British saints by William Jenkins Rees (1853). (Latin version)
corrected by
Colation to Rees' Lives of Cambro British Saints (pdf))


Here begins the Preface to the Life of the most blessed Cadog, who also is Sophias, bishop and martyr of the Beneventan monastery.

Quondam in quibusdam finibus Brittannice regionis, que Demetia vocatur, quidam regulus nomine Gluiguis regnabat, a quo tota ipsius regionis monarchia omnibus diebus vitae suae Gleuguissig nuncupatur, qui decem liberos progenisse fertur. Cujus primogenitus Gunleius vocabatur; a cujus etiam nomine post patris obitum ipsa quam rexit patria Gundliauc usque in presentem diem vocatur. Cujus germani, ut ingenui et bone indolis fratres, natalicio more, pacifice, diligenterque patrium regnum inter se, secundum eorundem numerum unicuique suam provinciam, diviserunt, excepto solum quarto Petroco, qui transitoriam pro perpetua sprevit hereditatem. Quorum nomina, cum provinciis sibi adjacentibus, hec sunt; Primogenitus quippe Gundleius primariam regni genitoris sui sedem, videlicet Gundliauc sortitur; Etelic autem obtinuit Etelicchion; Poul, Pennichen; Seru, Seruguunid; Gurai, Gurinid; Mar, Margan ; Cettil,Chettgueli; Cornouguill, Cornoguatlaun ; Metel, Crucmetil. Petrocus autem, unus ex eis, partem cum illis non accepit, qui quidem hujus seculi vanitates momentaneasque respuens illecebras penitus sanctorum exemplo patrum, mundana pro celestibus vilipendere, Deo firmiter cepit adherere, patriam, germanos, cuncta quoquc mundana demum deserere; peregrinus quoque nutu Dei in terram Cornubiensium ad territorium quod vocatur Botmenei tandem provenit; ...

There reigned formerly on the borders of Britain, called Dimetia (Dyfed), a certain regulus, named Glywys, from whom all the country of that district, in all the days of his life, was called Glywysyg (Glywysing), who is said to have ten children, children. The eldest of whom was called Gwynlliw, from whose name, the country, which he governed, was after the death of his father, to the present day, called Gwynlliw. Whose cousins, as brothers of good and ingenuous disposition, by a birthday custom, peaceably and carefully divided their father's kingdom amongst themselves, according to their number; to every one a province, except only to Pedrog the fourth, who gave up a transitory for a perpetual inheritance. Their names and adjacent provinces are as follow: Gwynlliw, the eldest son, obtained the chief part of his father s kingdom, namely Gwynllwg; Etelic had Edelygion, Poul: Penychen, Seru: Serugunid, Gwrhai: Gurinid, Mar: Margam, Cettil: Kidwely, Cornouguil Carnwyllion, Metel: Crucmetil. And one of them Pedrog would not receive with them a portion; as he rejected altogether the vanities, and momentary allurements of this world, and according to the example of the holy fathers, despised worldly for heavenly things; he began to adhere firmly to God, and gave up his country, his kindred, and at last all the things of this world. Trwelling from home, by the direction of God, in the country of Cornwall, he came at length to the district which is called Botmenei (Bodmin), where, during his whole life, he served God most devoutly, and erected a very large monastery to his honor. And his festival is celebrated reverently and with great solemnity on the second of the nones of June.

Here ends the Preface.

Here begins the Prologue to the Life of the same Saint.

After a long interval of time, the aforesaid king Gwynlliw enjoying his kingdom, desired to be joined in wedlock to a certain young lady for her very high reputation, who was elegant in appearance, beautiful in form, and adorned with silk vestments; her name was Gwladys, and she was the daughter of a certain king called Brychan. Therefore he sent many messengers to the father of the young lady, who earnestly requested that she should be given to him in marriage; but her father having heard the message, became angry, and full of rage refused to betroth his daughter, slighted the messengers, and sent them back without honor; which they taking amiss, returned and related to their master what had been done to them. Which being heard, raging with great anger, he armed as many as three hundred slaves, who should take the young lady away by force. They immediately set on their journey, and came to the court of the aforesaid regulus, which is called Talgard (6 miles east of Brecknock),"and found the young lady before the door of her residence, sitting with her sisters, and passing the time in modest conversation; whom they immediately took by force, and returned with speed.

Which Brychan her father hearing, he was seized with grief of heart, and mourning the loss of his dearest daughter, called to his assistance all his friends and neighbors to recover her. All his auxiliaries having come together, he with haste pursues his enemy with his accomplices; whom when Gwynlliw saw, he frequently ordered the said young lady to be brought forward, and he made her ride with him; and not flying, but taking her slowly on horseback, he preceded his army, waited for his soldiers, and manfully exhorted them to battle. But Brychan, with his men, boldly attacking the hard-hearted king and his followers, slew two hundred, and pursued them to the hill, which is the boundary between the two countries, and is called in the British language Bochriucarn, which signifies the cheek of a stony road. But when Gwynlliw had arrived at the boundary of his dominions, being bodily safe with the aforesaid young lady, and sorrowful from fighting with his enemies, a great slaughter having taken place, lo, three brave heroes, Arthur, with his two knights, namely, Kai and Bedwir, were sitting upon the top of the aforesaid hill and playing with dice.

When they saw the king with the young lady coming near them, Arthur was immediately seized with love towards the lady, and full of bad thoughts, said to his companions, "Know ye that I am vehemently inflamed with love towards the lady, whom the soldier carries off, riding." But they forbidding him said, "Far be from thee to commit such wickedness; for we have been accustomed to assist the destitute and the distressed, wherefore let us go forward, and quickly render our assistance that this contest may be terminated." And he said, "Since ye both will assist him, rather than take away the lady from him for me, go and meet them, and carefully enquire which of them is the owner of this territory." And they immediately departed, and to the enquiry made by the order of the king, Gwynlliw answered, "God being witness, and all the most learned in the land, I profess myself to be owner of this territory." The messengers on returning to their master, mentioned what they had heard from him. Then Arthur with his armed companions rushed upon the enemies of Gwynlliw, who turning their backs, fled with great confusion to their own country. Then Gwynlliw triumphing, through the assistance of Arthur, went with the aforesaid lady Gwladys to his palace that was on that hill, which from his name afterwards received the British appellation, Alltgundliu, that is the Hill of Gwynlliw; for from Gwynlliw, Gwynllwg, and from Brychan, Brycheiniog are called.

Here begins the Life of the same Saint. IX Kal. Feb.

1. OF THE ANGELIC REVELATION, AND THE BIRTH OF SAINT CADOC.

Those things having been done, king Gwynlliw united himself in lawful wedlock, to the aforesaid daughter of Brychan, named Gwladys; who conceived, and wonderful to be mentioned, four lamps were seen shining every night, with great brightness, in the four corners of the house where she remained, until she brought forth her first born son. And from this, it is manifest to all that the infant was elected by God from his mother's womb, like that prophecy of Isaiah, "From thy mother's womb have I elected thee," and elsewhere, "From my mother's belly the Lord called me."

On a certain night some of Gwynlliw's thieves came for the purpose of committing a robbery, to a town wherein dwelt a religious Irishman, who was a hermit and devoutly served God, which thieves, the aforesaid Gwynlliw loved, and instigated to robbery. But the said hermit possessed no worldly property except a cow big in calf, that was the best in all the district, and with her abundant milk sufficiently supplied with refreshment the hermit, and his twelve servants; which cow the aforesaid thieves stole. On the night, in which this crime was committed, Gwladys the wife of the oft-mentioned king brought forth her first-born son. Also in the same night, a voice from heaven announced to the father of the infant, in his sleep, saying, "A certain holy presbyter, and anchorite, by the direction of God will come to thee to-morrow, betimes in the morning, whom, when thou seest, humbly and devoutly receive, and kneeling earnestly beseech him to purify thy son in the font of regeneration; and his name will be called Cathmail. And when he has completed his seventh year, thou mayest give him up to the same regenerator, to receive instruction from his learning."

Also the angel of the Lord, on the same night, likewise appeared to the venerable presbyter, saying to him "Arise quickly, gird thyself, and put on thy shoes; for thy cow has been taken away by thieves, therefore make haste to look after her. But when thou comest to the court yard of Gwynlliw, where doubtless thou wilt find her, there hasten by the command of God to baptize the son of the king, by whom thy cow is detained, and afterwards when he is seven years of age thou art to instruct him in the books of the holy Scriptures. Therefore the aforesaid king, in the same night, mentioned to his wife Gwladys all that he had dreamed, before the said hermit came, who therefore greatly rejoiced.

On the following day the aforesaid priest attended by his disciples came early by the direction of God, to procure his cow; and was going to the bed where the king slept, but was opposed by the stern porters, and he did not enter; which becoming known to the king, he was quickly permitted to come in; and the cow he had lost was restored to him, and gladly received. For the king respected him, and immediately knew him to be the servant of God who had been revealed to him by the oracle, and bowing, he earnestly with downcast eyes supplicated the man of God that he would baptize his son in the laver of salvation. He complying with the petitions of his enemy, according to the angelic command, baptized the child, agreeably to our Lord's command, "Love your enemies, do good to them who hate you, and pray for those who persecute you, and despitefully use you, that ye may be the sons of my Father who is in heaven." But in the performance of this baptism, divine power deigned to shew, by a wonderful sign, how great the boy would be. For when the man of God, Meuthi (Tathai, the brother of St. Samson), would baptize the son of the aforesaid king, the servant of the king, being fatigued with their long journey, and in want of water for drink, uttered words of complaint in the hearing of Meuthi, the man of God, alleging that they were obliged daily to carry water on their shoulders from a distance. Meuthi answered them, "Let us all pray to our Lord Jesus Christ, that he would bestow running water to us, his servants, and to the infant, who has been elected by him from his mother's womb." When prayer was ended, a large fountain sprang up, and flowing abundantly, effected a river; which being done, and all persons exulting and praising God, the blessed Meuthi declared in answer that the force of the "stream had made joyful the city of God." Moreover, when a certain woman brought in her arms the young child to be baptized at the fountain, which, by means of the aforesaid holy hermit, had lately sprung up from the earth, he leaping from the arms of the person who brought him, by three leaps, without any one assisting him, got to the aforesaid fountain, which miracle the divine goodness performed to make known the grace of the child, according to the saying written in the Psalms, "The Lord is wonderful in his saints." Those three leaps of the young child denoted the mystical number of the holy Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, to whom, with all his might, and effect, he rendered obedience, studying to proceed daily from virtue to virtue, that he might deserve to see the God of all gods in Sion. And when the blessed Meuthi saw him leaping alone, he rejoiced, and with a more ready mind baptized him in the holy fountain, and according to the angelic command, gave him the name of Cathmail.

2. HOW THE BOY CADOC WAS TO BE INSTRUCTED BY HOLY MEUTHI.

The infant having been born a second time by the grace of baptism, the aforesaid presbyter returned him, after the manner of baptized persons, to his parents, saying, "Joyfully receive that child, who by the angelic command, was purified by me in the laver of salvation, and preserve him for seven years from all injurious things, and this being done, resolve that he should be instructed in divine literature." Which being heard, the father of the child said to the holy presbyter, "To thee, before all the doctors of Britain, I will intrust my son, that after the fixed number of years are past, thou mayest instruct him in the liberal arts, and divine doctrines, because thou art a true worshipper of God, and a skilful teacher of many disciples." To these words holy Meuthi answered, "All those things which you mention respecting this child, God willing I will effectually perform." These matters being done as has been related, holy Meuthi having obtained the aforesaid cow, returned to his own habitation.

3. OF THE FOUNTAIN WHICH HAD SUDDENLY SPRUNG UP FOR THE BAPTISM OF THE CHILD BEING TURNED TO METHEGLIN.

But we consider that it should not, by any means, be passed over what the divine mercy did, to make manifest the grace of the oft mentioned child, respecting the aforesaid fountain, in which holy Cathmail and Cadoc were baptized. In the first year after the baptism of Saint Cadoc, it was, as is related by the more skilful ancient writers of Britain, turned into mead, both in taste and color. And in the second year it preserved the color and sweetness of milk throughout the year. Therefore to those persons who dwelt in the country, wherein was the fountain, which flowed from the ground at the prayer of the said hermit, and for the love of Saint Cadoc, and drank thereof, it never failed nor lost its sweetness. But a very great dispute, and contention arose between unjust heirs, so that they dreadfully fought with each other, on the account of the fountain, and great slaughter of them was effected, namely a hundred countrymen slain, and many wounded, and those who remained, at length returned with their horses, and bloody clothes to their habitations. Therefore God the giver of all good things, who, by this fountain, deigned to show his benevolence, became angry and exasperated on account of their wickedness and injustice, and caused the liquor to return to its natural insipidity, according to the saying to Moses, "I will hide from them my face, saith the Lord, I will see what their end shall be, for they are a froward generation, children in whom is no faith."

When the term of seven years was past, and all the allurements of the world being despised, the boy Cadoc, with the consent of his parents, of his own accord, placed himself under the mastership of his baptizer Meuthi to be instructed in sacred literature, and the liberal arts. And he willingly taking him, agreeably to the command of the angel, diligently instructed him in Donatus and Priscian, and other arts for twelve years. Therefore when Cadoc, of pious memory, had passed the age of childhood, he began to be greatly devoted to God, and to strive with all his might to obtain by well doing the inheritance of eternal life, and overcoming his childhood, he gave up his mind to no pleasure. For what the evangelist said concerning the child Jesus, might not improperly be mentioned respecting this, his servant, "The child grew, and was comforted, and the Spirit of God was with him."

4. OF THE PUNISHMENT OF THE COUNTRYMAN, WHO REFUSED TO GIVE FIRE TO THE CHILD CADOC.

On a certain day, when their fire was extinguished, the aforesaid presbyter ordered his humble auditor to fetch fire, to cook the meat; he readily obeying the order of his master, immediately went to a thrashing floor, or winnowing place for corn, where was a certain servant of his master, who was named Tidus, and was at that time drying oats, and he earnestly requested that he would give him fire for the use of his master. But the foolish rustic rejected his request, and refused to give him any, except he would carry the burning coals in his cloak. Yet he, trusting in the Lord, received the coals of fire into his cloak; and brought them to his master, without the garment being burnt. But it is not to be concealed that the rustic received a punishment due to his perverseness; for the boy, in returning, beheld the rustic, and raising his eyes towards heaven, prayed to the Lord, saying, "I beseech thee, God the Father, Almighty, the Creator of heaven and earth, who grantest power on earth to thy servants by destroying scorpions, extinguishing poisons, casting out demons, giving sight to the blind, cleansing lepers, healing the sick, taming the fierce, and subduing sinners and impious persons, hear my prayers with thy ears, that this rustic by the kindling of his own firebrands, may with his thrashing floor and corn, be burnt together, and that his thrashing floor be cursed by God, so that no one, after his death, may use it for an age, and that his offspring be subject to the heathens. However I do not, by these supplications, which I have addressed to thy goodness, wish that the aforesaid sinner should be condemned in his wickedness, since the Lord saith, "I will not the death of the sinner, but rather that he should be converted and live." And Paul, "Not rendering evil for evil, nor cursing for cursing, but contrarywise blessing." But that the divine virtue and power in this world might be manifest to the wicked, and they might the more fear thee, and abhor resisting those who serve thee; as it is read in Daniel, "Let all those who inhabit the earth, fear the God of Daniel, because he is a deliverer, and savior, and performs miracles in heaven and in earth." The supplication being ended, and he looking back, lo, the thrashing floor, which was cursed by him, and the foolish countryman above mentioned were set on fire, and altogether consumed. And in that place, where the thrashing or winnowing floor was situated, an unseemly fountain arose after the burning, in memory of divine vengeance, which causing there a small marsh, hitherto remains in memory of the circumstance.

The docile boy Cadoc, as soon as he returned with the coals of fire, cast them from his unburnt cloak before the eyes of his master. This being done, as related, the senior said to him, "Most dear disciple, chosen servant of God, it is not lawful for me to teach thee any longer." Having heard this, the youth of good disposition, fearing lest that by doing something, he had incurred his indignation, said with a deep sigh, "How have I made thee angry with me, for thy wrath has the same effect upon me as fire; I have never been disobedient to thee, either in word or deed, nor an accuser, or whisperer among the brethren."

And Meuthi answering him said, "By no means, but as it is read in the gospel respecting the centurion, who when he requested Christ to heal his son, said unto him. Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldst dwell any longer with me under my roof, and thou receivest instruction from me, for thy wisdom exceeds my knowledge, and thy innocence is more eminent than my prudence, and thou art holier than I am, in every respect. Therefore with the divine protection, and my blessing, and the angels accompanying thee, thou wilt proceed prosperously wherever thou dost appoint to go." Then holy Meuthi after the departure of Cadoc taking into his consideration the aforesaid sacred fire, which he would not by any means dare to use, went and hid it as a precious treasure, burying it in the cemetery. Therefore from that day, until the time of king Huiguel (Howel), son of Ougueni (Owen) king of Morganensium (Morgannwg), the place where the sacred fire had been hidden by Saint Meuthi was universally known, and also on all persons, who came there with their cattle that were affected with various diseases, the divine mercy was accustomed to confer healing, until a certain malevolent man envying the gift of God, bestowed on man by this healing fire, unhappily by denying the place and fire, destroyed them that no one thereby should be cured of his disorder. Afterwards the fire and place have remained hitherto unknown, conferring health on no one.

5. OF THE DEPARTURE OF CADOC FROM HIS MASTER, AND PERMISSION GIVEN HIM TO PROCEED WITH THE YOUNG PIG.

Therefore Saint Cadoc departed sorrowfully from his oft before mentioned instructor, and with frequent sighings, diligently sought a place appropriate for the worship of God, nor was he long deprived of his wish. At length he came to a certain valley covered with thorns and thistles; where however fatigue obliged him to rest some time, under the shade of an apple tree, but the hogs there feeding, on seeing him were affrighted, and at a quick pace fled to the swineherd. Who when he saw the hogs affected with fear, was filled with anger, and being excited, he arose, and taking his spear, searched in all directions for whom or what had affrighted the hogs. Whence it happened that he came to the place where Saint Cadoc prayed, near the roots of the aforesaid tree; and seeing him, he suspected that he was a thief, and with upraised right hand, endeavored to stab him with the point of his spear. But God seeing the wickedness of the swineherd from on high, immediately caused his extended arm to become stiff, so that he could not draw it to him, nor on the contrary was he able to extend it, and he immediately lost the sight of both his eyes. So that without doubt the venerable Cadoc by the direction of God, commendably escaped the dangerous rage of the furious swineherd.

And the swineherd using lamentable expressions, and ascertaining with his feet, and left hand only, the injury that had been done to his limbs, knew that Cadoc, whom ho desired to kill, was a servant of God, and addressed him in a sorrowful manner, as follows, "I beseech thy piety with earnest entreaties, that for the ineffable mercy of God, thou wouldst for me, who suffer from the incorporeal bonds of divine vengeance, loosen my miserable limbs, and grant to my blindness the eye-sight that has been taken away." To these words, Cadoc said, "Thou wilt receive no cure from God, until thou goest to thy master, namely Poul Pennychen." But he mentioned, "You see, most faithful servant of God, that I am deprived of the sight of both eyes, and my miserable body is, as it were bound with iron chains, and therefore I am not able to travel." To whom Cadoc replied, "Only believe that all things are possible to God, both in heaven and in earth;"and he answered, "I believe. Lord." And again the blessed man said to him, "He who opened the eyes of one born blind, and raised Lazarus from the grave, wherein he had lain for four days, will open thine eyes, and in the presence of thy master, and of those who will be sitting with him, the marrow of all thy limbs will be instantly restored, and I command thee that when thou wilt tell thy master those things, which have been done to thee by God through me, and hast received the sight of thy eyes, thou wilt salute him for me and ask him to come to me, that by sight, and conversation I may be deemed worthy to engage his attention; for he his my uncle." Having heard these things, the blind and wretched man immediately arose, nothing doubting of obtaining his cure through the mercy of God; and his footsteps being directed by God, he came strait to the residence of his master, which is called in the British language, Nant Poul; and striking the doors with his blind forehead, he called the porters with a loud voice, and lamentably asked for an entrance. And the porters beholding him, and having compassion on him, on account of his calamity, anxiously enquired how he had lost his sight, and how he came to be seized with such debility. But he returned no answer, and kept the matter a secret until he entered the hall of his master, and while standing, plainly related to him all the things that had by God, through Saint Cadoc, been done to him; and having scarcely uttered the words to him, his blindness was taken away, and his former sight restored; scales like those of a fish fell from his eyes, and the virtue of genial strength was restored to his stiffened right hand.

These things being seen and heard, the aforesaid Poul greatly wondered, and receiving the command of the man of God, rejoiced with exultation, and thinking that the holy Cadoc would always prefer temporal glory, and an earthly kingdom to the service of God, he put on his best clothes, and with twelve chosen soldiers, and conducted by the aforesaid swineherd, went joyfully to the man of God, and found him praying under the shade of the said apple tree, and not only he himself, but also all his attendant soldiers alighted from their horses, fell down at the feet of the blessed Cadoc, and addressed him with such words as the following, "We return due thanks to God, and greatly rejoice on account of thy happy arrival; if thou wilt set aside the service of religion, and promise to take the royal sceptre, as suits thy dignity, for the rights of the whole kingdom belong to thee, and we all will become subject to thy government, because thou art the principal heir to this kingdom."

To which words Cadoc said, "The service of divine religion, I will never forsake for the allurements of the deceitful world, nor will I prefer earthly to heavenly things, neither will I despise what is eternal for what is momentary; and a spot for one cottage, of all thy territory, will be sufficient for me." The subregulus answered him, "I expected that thou wouldst have asked for some very large gifts, now thou dost request the smallest, therefore choose and possess whatever may be agreeable to thy will and pleasure." To whom the blessed man uttered these words. "It wearies me to examine the various places of this desert, and this valley, not a little remote from habitations, I choose before all others to dwell in; and here I think proper to serve God devoutly with my fellow soldiers, the clergy. According to what is written in the Psalms, "Here shall be my resting place for ever; here will I dwell, because I have chosen it." Things of this sort having been done, and a dwelling place for the blessed Cadoc been granted, the aforesaid subregulus returned to his own habitation.

The venerable man with his clergy passed the following night in prayers to God, that he would inform them of a place to build on for him, and by grubbing up the bushes to make plain. For in that valley there was no dry place, it being a watery moor, producing nothing but reeds, and it was full of various kinds of reptiles and snakes, except what surrounded a bush, under which a great white boar usually passed its time; also in the middle of the said bush, in the upper part, a swan was accustomed to build its nest every year. And as the venerable man finished his prayer, lo, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream, and said to him, "Thy prayer has been heard by the Lord; therefore on rising early in the morning, thou wilt find a place for building an oratory, plain, and made level, and when thou wilt walk over it, thou wilt see a bristly white old boar leaping, being affrighted at the noise of thy footsteps; and there thou mayest lay the foundation of thy church in the name of the Holy Trinity; afterwards in the place where the boar will again stop, thou mayest build a dormitory, and again, where, in his progress, he will make a third stopping, there thou mayest construct thy refectory." And Saint Cadoc rising early in the morning, saw that the rough and bushy places had, by the direction of God, been made level, as the angel had mentioned. Therefore the venerable man came by the angelic command to the aforesaid bush, in the middle of the cleared valley, and observed a remarkable great boar rising from the sound of his footsteps, and also a white swan flying away, being driven from its nest by fear. And the boar stopped its course not far from the aforesaid thicket, and looked back towards Saint Cadoc, as if pointing out the place: it then proceeded a little farther, and again for a little while stopped its progress. Then the blessed man marked by the fixing of three twigs, the three stations of the boar; and he built in the first station a remarkable monastery of wooden materials, in the second, a a refectory and castle, and in the third, a dormitory.

6. HOW THE MAN OF GOD FIRST BUILT A MONASTERY.

After this miracle was made known to all the western Britons, a great many of the clergy from all parts throughout Britain, flowed eagerly, like a river, to Saint Cadoc, that they might learn to imitate his wisdom, and his actions, for he always cheerfully received all who were anxiously desirous to pay instant obedience to the commands of God, and gave themselves up to the study of the Holy Scriptures. Then the holy man undertook to raise up a large mound of earth, and to make therein a very handsome cemetery, to be dedicated in honor of God, where the bodies of the faithful might be buried near to the church. The mound being completed, and the cemetery also constructed therein, he made, through impassable places, four large footpaths across four declivities of the rising grounds, which surrounded his residence, following literally, and spiritually, the evangelical precept, which says, "Prepare the way for the Lord, make his paths strait." Likewise this man of God, not only by laboring bodily with his hands, converted uneven, indirect, and rough ways into good roads, but also converted the hearts of many which were infected, and perverse with divers errors, to the right way of the Lord. Likewise he chose another place for himself, and caused to be raised therein, of the soil of the earth, another mound in the form of a round city, and on the mound, to be erected, what in the language of the Britons is Kastell Cadoc, (The Castle of Cadoc.) For he thought it proper that he should pass his life, laboring with his hands, and he dreaded to consume idly the labors of another person, hoping through the sufferings of present exertion, to pass to the glory of eternal rest, according to what is written in the Psalms, "Labor with thy hands, for he that eateth,"and so forth. And the apostle says, "Let every one of you labor, working with his hands, that he may give to those who suffer need." And again, "Let no one of you eat the bread of idleness; and he who does not labor, should not eat." He indeed, although he was the proprietor of ranch land, was accustomed to sow his corn only in one fertile acre, which, in the language of the inhabitants, was called Erwgaven, or (The White Acre.) And it was known to all who read or heard the Life of the pious father Cadoc, that such acre, on account of the benediction and sanctity of the man of God, obtained the venerable name.

7. HOW SAINT CADOC SAILED TO IRELAND.

It therefore happened that on a certain day, after a long space of time, the blessed Cadoc spoke to his disciples after this manner, saying, "My most dear brethren, I have a very great desire to sail to Ireland, for the sake of teaching." And they answering said, 'We know indeed, kind master, that thou formest such designs as are pleasing to God, and according to the will of God; for whatever thou dost ask of him, thou dost immediately obtain, and thou dost not contemplate anything that is wicked or perverse, for thou knowest that it is better to be constantly meditating on the Holy Scriptures, according to the Proverbs of the Wise Man, "Son, acquire learning in thy youth, and thou wilt find wisdom with thy grey hairs, and it will be to thee as a father and mother." And afterwards he ordered a strong boat besmeared with pitch to be prepared for him in the harbor of the sea, that he might safely sail therein to Ireland.

And some of his disciples being assembled together, uttered these words, "Lord, wherever thou dost go, we will follow thee." He saith to them, "Some of you shall go with me, but others shall here remain to keep faithfully my monastery and town, until I come back. And it was so done. Therefore Saint Cadoc sailed over the Irish sea, and with a seasonable and prosperous course, came to land, and coming in good time, he employed himself in diligently searching for the most excellent master of that country, so that he might by him be more perfectly instructed in the seven liberal arts; and thirsting eagerly for improvement in learning, he at length came prosperously to the principal city of that country, which is called Lismore Muchutu. And he was graciously received by the most learned master of that town, and all the clergy there resident; and on account of his sanctity and humility, they surnamed him with the name of the principal saint of that city, Muchutu, with which chief doctor he remained three years, until he succeeded in gaining perfection in the learning of the West. It is reported that a monastery in honor to Saint Cadoc was built in that city.

8. HOW CADOC RETURNED PROM IRELAND.

Three years having passed away, he returned in a very celebrated manner from Ireland with a large company of Irish, and British clergy, among whom were the religious and very learned men, namely Finian Macmoil and Gnauan, said to be the most celebrated, and skilful of all the British disciples. From hence, therefore, he came to the district of Brecknock, for he had heard that a celebrated rhetorician of the name of Bachan, had come from Italy to that country. As the blessed Cadoc had heard the fame of his knowledge, he much wished to be taught Latin by him after the Roman method. And at that time there was a great famine in the district of Brecknock. When the holy man came to the aforesaid dogmatist, Saint Cadoc suppliantly asked him, if he would deign to take him to be instructed; to whom he answered, "My son, I am ready, but I am very apprehensive lest food for thee, and thy fellow disciples should be wanting, and ye should suffer from hunger." These things being heard, the man of God, having strong confidence in the Lord, and urgent in his supplications, watered his sorrowful cheeks with tears, that he might be provided with food for them, by the Giver of all things; wherefore in the course of that day, it happened that a certain mouse went out of its hole carrying in its mouth a grain of corn to the blessed Cadoc, and in a playful manner placed it on a table before his eyes. The same mouse came and returned seven times, and hid as many grains in its heap, showing by a sign that the divine mercy was present with him. At length he caught the same little mouse, and tied it by the foot, that he might diligently search into the mystery of the affair; afterwards he sent for the aforesaid scholastic, drew out the grain, and related to him minutely what had been done. Both persons knowing that a miracle had been made known to them by God, took counsel together, and Cadoc asked and received from a certain widow, a long and fine thread, which he tied to a foot of the mouse, and letting it proceed with the loosened thread, he followed it, until the said little animal came to a certain mound under which was a very beautiful subterranean house, built of old, and full of clean wheat. And there it presently went in, through a dark hole, and soon returned bringing in its mouth one grain of corn as before. But who had built that house, or who had placed there such a large quantity of corn, is hitherto unknown. But it is most certainly known that it was a divine gift granted to the servant of the Lord, to drive away want from himself, and from his companions; which having been seen. Saint Cadoc, returning to his master and companions, related to them what he had seen; and his master spoke to him, as foIlows, "By this, I know that thou art a true worshipper of God, and art strengthened by him in all thy journeys; wherefore I the more anxiously desire, with all my heart, that thou remain with me for the purpose of reading, so long as it may please thee." When therefore the servant of God had heard these words with his ears, he rejoiced not a little, and said, "If you order, Lord Father, this divine gift to the poor and hungry, we shall claim the sentence of the Wise Man, and it shall be deservedly given to us." "He who hideth corn shall be cursed by the people, and a blessing shall be on the head of those who give it." Therefore while he remained with the aforesaid doctor, he distributed the corn given to him by God, to all poor persons, giving to every one in proportion to his poverty. Wherefore as the fame of this miracle was increasing throughout the district, the joyful report reached the ears of Brychan, the grandfather of the blessed Cadoc, with worthy admiration, who gave to the man of God the part of the field, wherein the corn was found, which is named, Llanspyddid two miles east from Brecknock, in which place the man of God built a monastery for himself.

9. OF THE RETURN OF THE BLESSED CADOC TO HIS PRINCIPAL MONASTERY.

Therefore the blessed Cadoc, when he found himself sufficiently instructed in the learning of the doctor, commended his oratory to his teacher Bachan, and some of his attendants, and returned to his own habitation in his dear country at Llancarvan. Also another miracle of the same venerable father is said to have taken place; for when he returned to his own town of Llancarvan, from whence he had been absent for a length of time, he beheld his principal monastery destroyed, and the rafters of the roofs and rubbish of the building scattered over the cemetery; and grieving at the ruin, he earnestly desired, with the permission of God, to rebuild it. Therefore he sent for all his clergy and some workmen, and they all went to a grove for the purpose of bringing from thence the materials of timber, excepting two youths, namely Finian and Macmoil, who, with the permission of the man of God, remained that they might pass the time in reading. Then the steward, the cook, and sexton coming forwards, scolded them, saying, "How long will you be disobedient, without doing any good with your fellow disciples? disliking to work, ye eat the bread of idleness; therefore hasten to the wood, and bring the timber here quickly with your companions." But they answering, said, "We are not able to draw carts after the manner of oxen." But they shewed to them in derision two stags standing near the wood, and said as follows, "Lo, two very strong oxen stand near the wood, go quickly and catch them." And they going, through their great haste, left a book open in the place where they sat, in the open air; and in the name of Christ they ordered the stags to stop, who immediately set aside their wildness, and being gently covered, they submitted their untamed necks to the yoke.

And they brought home, as domestic oxen, a great beam fastened to their yoke, which four powerful oxen could scarcely draw, and then being loosened from their yoke were allowed to return to their pastures. And Saint Cadoc beholding and greatly admiring what was done, enquired of them, saying, "Who ordered you to come to me to give your assistance to draw the timber without being dismissed from your reading?"And they related to him the reproaches of the aforesaid three persons railing against them; and he, being inflamed with anger, inflicted a curse on the aforesaid three officials, as follows, "May God do this to them," and he added, "that those three persons die by the worst death of a sword, or be killed by hunger." In that very hour, a heavy shower of rain fell throughout the whole district, and the man of God enquired of the aforesaid disciples where they had left the book. And they being afraid said, "In the place where we were employed in reading it, being forgetful through great haste, we left it exposed in the open air." And the man of God went to it, and greatly wondering, found the book altogether uninjured by the rain. Therefore that book is called in memory of the blessed man, in the British language, "Cob Cattwg,"that is, "The Memory of Cadoc." Also, it is reported that a chapel in honor of Saint Finian was built in the place, where, amidst showers and storms his book was found dry, and free from rain. From the aforesaid two stags, who were yoked after the manner of oxen, and drew the cart, the principal town of Saint Cadoc received from the ancient British inhabitants, the name Nantcarvan, that is the Valley of Stags, whence Nat caruaguan (Nant Carban), that is, from a Valley and a Stag.

10. HOW SAINT David, BY THE COMMAND OF AN ANGEL, ASSEMBLED A SYNOD.

In that time, wherein these things were done. Saint David, a true confessor of God, and a chief Bishop, shone with great virtues in Britain; to whom an angel sent from God said, "Arise, be not slow, and constitute a synod by assembling all the clergy, and elders, and aged persons." To whom, the blessed David said, "I am ready, at thy orders, to perform, if I were worthy, whatever is pleasing to the Lord, but there is one descended from the nobility of Britain, who is more worthy by birth, more distinguished for sanctity, more sagacious in understanding, and more skilful in discourse for assembling a synod, whose name is Cadoc, and he dwells at Glywysig, without whose leave, and consent, I will not by any means presume to undertake so great an affair." To whom the angel said, "Obey my commands, in the smallest matter, nor fear him in any respect, for he will not stand in thy way at all in this matter, as he is at present gone a great way off, and according to what the angel has said, let both be accomplished." Cadoc indeed had undertaken a journey, and David after his departure assembled a large synod in the city of Brevi.

11. OF THE PEREGRINATION OF THE MAN OF GOD, AND THE CONCEPTION OF A BARREN QUEEN THROUGH HIS PRAYERS.

Therefore Saint Cadoc went forwards without money and satchel, having perfect confidence in God, who says, "I say unto you, take no thought for your life, saying what shall we eat, and what shall we drink, neither for your body, what ye shall put on." And again, "Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you,"and so forth. The venerable man went forwards, and he was kindly received by all wherever he came. Shortly afterwards he went from thence by sea, and favorable breezes of wind swelling the sails, he landed in the islands of Grimbul. And there he went up to a certain city of that country, where a very rich king resided, whose wife was barren, whom he very much irritated by finding fault with her, saying, "Depart from me, because thou art not worthy of a conjugal husband, for thy womb is cursed by the Lord, since thou bearest not fruit on the earth." The queen hearing that saint Cadoc had come to the city, quickly met him in his walks, and mournfully besought his kindness, saying, "I beseech thee, most faithful servant of God, that thou wilt deign to intercede with the Lord for me, thy miserable servant, for I am affected with the disgrace of barrenness, as with some grievous disease." And the common people, admiring, followed him as he went on, and all of them, as if with one mouth, earnestly besought the man of God for her. And the blessed Cadoc said to her, "Go in peace, the Lord will grant thee thy petition, in what thou askest for." But she added, "I wish that thy servant may find grace in thy eyes; if I should have either a son, or a daughter, I will give him up to the service of the Lord all his days, and will consign him to thy protection. Therefore the king knew his wife in that night, and the Lord remembered her, and she conceived, and afterwards at length brought forth a son, whom she called by the name Elli.

From thence the beloved Cadoc went into Greece, and at length came to Jerusalem; where Christ was born, suffered, was buried, arose from the dead, and ascended into heaven. And, as it is most truly reported, a knowledge of the languages of those nations through which, in going and returning, he passed, was given him by the Lord, and he spake in various tongues like to the primitive church of disciples in the time of Christ. On a certain day, while he was walking about the church of the Lord, he saw in the cemetery, three very beautiful stones which were fit for the performance of the service of Christ, namely very suitable for an altar, and he said, "I wish that these three very elegant stones, would by the direction of God, and flying after the manner birds, be removed to my dear monastery." After a space of three years, he returned to the aforesaid islands, and there found the boy Elli, whom the aforesaid barren queen, after his absence, the time intervening, had brought forth. Pious Cadoc therefore received him, and carried him on his own shoulders, and protecting him from all injuries, educated and instructed him; for he greatly loved him, and with more than the love of a father and mother, because his mother had devoted him to God, and had given him to be protected by him, when indeed he was chosen a servant of God.

12. OF A CERTAIN LIFE-GUARDSMAN, WHO DISAPPEARED LIKE SMOKE BEFORE THE FACE OF CADOC.

A certain malicious sergeant lived in the town of Gwynllwg, a relative of the pious Cadoc, who, during his peregrination, through envy, slew his cousin Cynvelyn. And when he discovered that the memorable man had returned, he was seized with great fear, and quickly fled from his presence; afterwards as the holy man followed him, he vanished before his eyes, by the direction of God, as dust or smoke before the wind. Thou wast present, O Christ, exercising the power of thy majesty, who every where dost exalt the humble that believe in thee, as it is written, "The friends of God are greatly honored."

Moreover, after the man of God had returned to his monastery, he beheld the three wished for stones, which he had before so much desired at Jerusalem to be carried to his church, and had prayed devoutly that they might be in his monastery, become three altars, one of which he gave to Elli, another to Macmoil, but the third he kept to himself.

13. OF THE ROBBERS SWALLOWED UP BY THE EARTH.

To this miracle, the divine power performed another not unlike it, to declare the merits of the blessed man. There was a certain general named Sawyl, living not far from the monastery, who, full of wicked desires, came with his accomplices, to his habitation, and took by force from thence meat and drink, and his attendants, as well as himself, eat and drank by turns; and the clergy sighing on account of such disgrace, entered the church, which occasionally was deprived of the presence of the man of God, and devoutly requested from the Lord, the castigation of the invaders.

And when they wept with great lamentation, the holy man came unexpectedly, and enquired of them the cause of so much sorrow, to whom relating the occasion, he spoke with a confident countenance, "Have patience, for patience is the mother of all virtues, suffer them to load their hearts with surfeiting and drunkenness, and being drunk, they will also fall asleep, and while they are sleeping, shave off with very sharp razors the half part of their beard and hair, to their very great disgrace, and also in like manner, cut off the lips and ears of their horses;" and they did as they were ordered.

Then the kicked robbers having digested in their sleep a little of the superfluity of food, at length awoke, and stupid from their excessive drinking, mount their horses, and commence their journey as soon as they could. Then the man of God said to his clergy, "Let every one of you put on his clothing and shoes, and go to meet your enemy, for otherwise you will be killed, for he will return and slay us, from the greatest to the least, with the sword, when he will discover that they were derided by us." Each person therefore put on his clothes, and Saint Cadoc likewise was clothed with his garment, and nearly fifty clergymen followed him, to meet the destructive tyrant with songs, and hymns, and psalms. And when they ascended a certain mound, Sawyl Penuchel and his attendants came down to meet them. Then before the eyes of the servant of God, the earth opened its mouth, and swallowed up the tyrant with his companions alive, on account of their wickedness, lest they might cruelly slay the man of God, and his clergy. And the ditch, where thy were swallowed up, is known unto this day by all persons there passing; which always remaining open in testimony of this thing, is not allowed to be filled up by any one.

And Cadoc of good memory, and his clergy returned to their own residence with great triumph, glorifying God, and singing the Ambrosian hymn, "Te Deum laudamus," and what follows to the end. These things having been performed, the blessed Cadoc, his brethren being present, blessed them in the following manner, saying, "Blessed are ye in the Lord, and this blessed discourse and your counsel will give this privilege and prerogative in the Lord to you twelve barbers, designating the typical number of the twelve apostles, and all the rest holding your turn in this town to posterity. If judgment, and useful counsel be wanting in all the courts, let it be found here amongst you; if twelve appointed wise men should be wanting, let the counsel of twelve irregular clergy be had; if twelve clergymen should not be present, then let judgment and advice be permitted to twelve young boys, virgins, and undefiled women.

14. OF THE INDULGENCE TO SAINT DAVID FOR ASSEMBLING THE SYNOD.

Some of the disciples of the blessed man being assembled together, spoke to each other, "Which of us will undertake to relate to our master, the things that were done in Britain by Saint David whilst he travelled abroad?" To this they were all silent, nor would any one presume to mention the matter to him; they cast lots therefore in this business, and the lot fell upon Finian. Therefore Saint Finnian arose in the midst of the brethren with great trepidation, and placing himself at the feet of the man of God, devoutly begged that he would not be angry with him, and he related how an universal synod had been assembled by Saint David whilst he traveled abroad. Which thing greatly displeased him, and he became very angry with Saint David for inflicting such disgrace, and he passed a day and night in fasting. Also in the same night, an angel of the Lord came to him, and spoke as follows, "I beseech thee not to be angry with thy brother,"for it is read in the epistle of John, "He who hateth his brother is a murderer," for the irregularity of this business was allowed to blessed David by angelic intervention; wherefore the angel said in addition, "Because thou hast obeyed my voice, and at my entreaty hast forgiven what was committed against thee, the Lord my God will deliver thy castle full of the souls of men from eternal punishment, in the day of judgment; and as many shaggy hairs as are in thy cloak, a kind of garment, which the Irish wear out of doors, full of prominent shaggy hairs, wove into a kind of plush, so many men will be delivered by thee from eternal punishment. And also on every sabbath, from this night for ever, one soul will be liberated from eternal torments for thy love; and all thy familiar friends who will die in this place, will be free from infernal punishment; and what is more, whatever thou dost request of God, will be granted." Then blessed Cadoc, rejoicing, arose in the town, and mentioned the angelic promises to his disciples, saying, "Ye boys, praise the Lord, praise the name of the Lord, for his mercy is confirmed to us, and the truth of the Lord will remain for ever."

15. OF THE MANSION OF SAINT CADOC IN THE TIME OF LENT.

In the days of Lent, Saint Cadoc was accustomed to reside in two islands. Barren and Echni or Ethni(Barry Island and Flat Holms in the Bristol Channel). On Palm Sunday, he came to Nantcarvan, and there remained, performing Paschal service, feeding daily one hundred clergymen, and one hundred soldiers, and one hundred workmen, and one hundred poor persons, with the same number of widows. This was the number of his family, besides serving attendants and esquires and well-dressed guests, the number of which was uncertain, a multitude of whom frequently came to him. Nor is it to be wondered at, for being rich he was able to feed so many, being an Abbot and a Prince over the territory of his progenitor; from Fynnon Hen, that is, from the Old Fountain, as far as the mouth of the river Rhymny; and he possessed all the territory from the river Gulich to the river Nadauan, from Pentyrch direct to the valley of Nantcarvan: and from that valley to the Gurimi, that is the Lesser Rhymny, towards the sea. (The rivers Golych and Dawon or Daw empty into the Bristol Channel at Aberthaw and the Gwy Rymi near barry Island.)

16. HOW THE EARTH SWALLOWED UP THE ROBBERS ALIVE; AND OF THE CONVERSION OF SAINT ILTUTUS

On a certain day, when Saint Cadoc sat in his chair teaching the people, fifty of the soldiers of a certain regains, namely Ponl with the surname of Penychen, who with hawks catched birds, came to take food from him whether he would or no; to whom, it is said, he ordered twenty wheaten lowes to be given, and a tierce that is a vessel, full of ale, and a fat grazing sow. All these being taken, and carried off by them to the field of Meditullium, which is called Medgard, not far from the town, and there deposited, they sat down about the tierce of ale, in order and in the form of a circle surrounding it; and having cut up the pig into small pieces, they carefully prepared them to dinner. There was a certain military officer in that warfare, named Illtyd, who was absent when they committed the crime, but they would by no means presume to dine before his return. Therefore while they waited for him, and abstained on that account from the prepared food, lo, Illtyd came suddenly; but before he alighted from his horse, the ground unexpectedly broke under them, and in the twinkling of an eye, they were overwhelmed in a deep abyss, according to what David has mentioned, "The earth opened its mouth, and swallowed Dathan, and covered the congregation of Abiram." But the food and the tierce of beer which I have mentioned, were carried by a divine miracle to a certain mound, and it was settled that they should remain untouched and undefiled.

The aforesaid Illtyd beholding these things with his own eyes, hastened his chariot, and falling down at the feet of the blessed Cadoc, mentioned how the divine vengeance had destroyed his companions, that is the guards of the aforesaid regulus, for the injury they had done to him. Also the same officer besought the man of God, with earnest entreaties, in the name of the divine majesty, that he would grant to him the monastic habit, and would intimate the same by giving him the marks of service, as the shaving of his hair and beard. Then he complying with his entreaties, the said officer, leaving his earthly warfare, and renouncing altogether secular weapons, and paying obedience to divine ordinances, gave himself up to observe with all his might the doctrines of his master. Whence it is said, "The earth has covered them, never to return to the world." Illtyd believed such acts as he had seen; he who had been a victorious soldier through many cities, changed his warfare for obtaining the highest crown, being made a monk, he profited in various ways. Therefore the man of the Lord sent some young men, who brought the aforesaid meat and drink, and therewith satisfied as many poor persons as there were of robbers, who had been before disagreeably disappointed.

17. OF AN ARCHITECT BEING RAISED FROM THE DEAD BY SAINT CADOC.

Also, at another time, when the blessed Cadoc again departed from thence, being desirous to exhibit elsewhere a service devoted to God, came by the divine direction to a certain city placed near a great river, which is called Neath, and beholding the place, presently gave orders that a house of prayer should be there built for him. Workmen to the number of twelve proceeding to the wood, for the purpose of felling timber for building the oratory, informed the whole country what was going on. Wherefore it happened that a certain Irishman, named Linguri, a stranger, but a skilful architect, being forced by poverty, came to him with his children, that by the practice of his skill, he might procure food for himself and family, and he was gladly received by the man of God, and engaging in the work, with twelve workmen, very soon excelled them all in skill and ability. But the other twelve envying him, wickedly killed him; and cutting off his head, they fastened a great stone to the trunk of his body, and cast it into a deep pool. When they, according to custom returned home, the sons of the skilful person not seeing their father as usual, wept with lamentable expressions. And when the man of God heard the wailing, he quickly enquired the cause of such mournful lamentation.

The workmen thereupon being quickly called together, excused themselves with all their might, and with much cavilling asserted that they did not know what had become of the aforesaid architect. Therefore the man of God in order to be informed of their wickedness, passed the night with all his clergy in watching and prayer, that therein the truth of the matter might be declared to them. In the morning when prayers were ended, lo, the beheaded architect, carrying his head in his bosom, and a large stone on his back, and wet and bloody, with a woeful and horrid countenance, appeared to the venerable man, and his disciples. Wonderful to be said, but easily to be effected by God, the head which had been cut off spoke as follows: "Servant of God, fix me on the neck, in the former state, and I will relate to thee every thing concerning this matter, which hitherto are unknown to thee." And he did as requested. And the murdered architect, Linguri, related to him the dreadful crime of the aforesaid twelve workmen, and how that being excited by envy, they had villainously slain him. To whom he said in answer, "Choose which you wish to have of these two things, whether to live again in this mortal state, and become a future dead body, or to return to eternal life to reign for ever with God." And he said, "Sir, that my soul may return to eternal life." And while he yet spoke, he expired. Therefore the holy man ordered his disciples to place the aforesaid stone, which the murdered architect had carried on his back, upright in the earth, near the wood, in memory of the miracle, and to bury him there nigh to it, and directed that all the township should be called after his name Lanlynguri (Gyynleiros). Also by this stone, the Lord cures those who cannot hold their urine, and are afflicted with divers kinds of diseases, for the love of Saint Cadoc and Lynguri, to this very day.

18. OF THE DISPUTE BETWEEN SAINT CADOC AND KING ARTHUR, RESPECTING THE RECONCILIATION OF A CERTAIN PERSON.

Therefore at that time, a certain brave general of the Britons, named Ligessawc (possibly Liyngessog of the Llandaff charters in the time of Oudoceus) the son of Eliman, who had also the surname of Lawhir, that is Long Hand, slew three soldiers of Arthur, the most illustrious king of Britain; and Arthur pursuing him every where, he found no safe place, and no one ventured to protect him for fear of the aforesaid king; until at length being wearied by very frequent flights, he came a fugitive to the man of God. Who commiserating his labors kindly received him, trusting in the Lord, and not fearing Arthur, according to our Lord's command, "Fear not those who kill the body, and cannot kill the soul, but rather fear him who can kill both body and soul in hell." Therefore he remained with him safe in the country of Gwynllwg, without the knowledge of Arthur, for seven years. Which being passed, he was betrayed to the said king, and the same at last came with a large force of soldiers to the river Usk, for the sake of pleading in a trial at law, for he dared not to contend with violence against the man of God. Therefore he sent ambassadors to the king, and enquired of him if he would refer the dispute to the verdict of skilful judges. And he acquiesced, for Saint Cadoc having sent for three principal persons from divers parts of the country, namely David and Teilo and Dochu (Oudoceus) ,and also Keneder (St. Cybidr)and Maidoc (Aeddan Foeddog - St Aidus),' with many other clergymen, and senior judges of all Britain, who, assembling on the banks of the great river Usk, met together, he preceding them. There also, after the manner of enemies, they disputed the matter with bitter words, from both sides of the river, and contended for a length of time against each other. After an intermission in the altercation, the more skilful of some of the judges decreed that Arthur ought to receive for the redemption of every one of his men, who was slain, three very good oxen. Others however fixed that one hundred cows should be given as the price of every person who had been killed; for from ancient times the judgment among the Britons was of this kind, and the price was appointed by the ministers of kings and generals. This being accepted, Arthur, in an insolent manner, refused cows of one color, but would have those of two colors: with the fore part red, and the hind part white, and required those so distinguished by color, with much wrangling. And they, being altogether ignorant where cattle of that color were to be found, were in doubt what they should do respecting them. Therefore the man of God, in the name of three persons, ordered young men of the company, to the number of nine, or more as some say, to bring to him one hundred heifers, of whatever color they might be. And when the said animals were brought before his eyes and those of other servants of God, they were, on account of the perverse desire of Arthur, immediately turned into the aforesaid colors.

And the company of all the clergy, and many other faithful worshippers of God, who had been assembled by the blessed man, beholding this miracle, greatly rejoiced, and glorified God. Moreover the man of God consulted what ought justly to be done respecting the aforesaid cattle, and an answer was given from one of the sides of the company of judges, "It is right that thou shouldest drive them in a flock to the middle of the ford." Therefore he drove them until Arthur Kai and Bedwyr with others sitting on the banks of the river met them; and Kai and Bedwyr, greatly desiring to have them, drew them by their horns with their hands to the river's side; but immediately, whilst they were in their hands, they were by the direction of changed into bundles of fern. Which miracle being seen God by Arthur, he humbly entreated the blessed man that the injury which he had inflicted on him should be forgiven him. And pardon for the offence was granted to him, according to the evangelical precept, "Forgive and ye shall be forgiven."

Therefore the aforesaid king, having entered into counsel with his army, granted him his refuge for seven years, and for as many months, and for the same number of days. If any stranger therefore in some appointed time, should leave the town of Cadoc, desiring greatly to depart and sail to some distant part of the world, and by chance through the force of storms, or by contrary winds in a tempest, be driven to his harbor that is barren, and again return to his former refuge or place, according to the tradition of the elders, he is to be attended with service, and readily received to the last term of his life. This, Arthur, and all his generals with all the elders of Britain corroborating it, said, "we also, in the hearing of you all, bear witness to the words of this decree, whoever will transgress them, may God add to him all the plagues written in the old and new law, and may his name be blotted from the book of life. But whoever will keep them, may he be filled with all the blessings of the old and new Testament, and may they descend and remain upon him, and also may his soul be settled in eternal glory." The council being finished, all the cows which had been changed into bundles of fern, were found safe in the stalls of their owners. And from that day, the place is called in the British language, Trefredinauc, The Town of Fern. All persons returning peaceably from the trial. Saint Cadoc gave three villages to the said nobles, one to David, another to Teilo, and the third to Docguinnus. The names of which villages, and of their possessors, are as follows: to the blessed David he gave Llandewi Penybei; to Teilo Merthyr Teemed; and to Doguuinuus Landubrguir.

19. OF THE REVENGE ON THE KING OF GUINEDOTORUM (GWYNEDD) FOR THE INJURY DONE TO THE MAN OF GOD.

Also another miracle, known to all the Britons residing in those parts, is ascribed to the same holy patron. In those days, a certain king, of the name of Maelgon, reigned over all Britain, who sent some of his young men to the region of Gwynllwg, that they might there receive tribute. Who coming to the house of the steward of Cadoc, seized his very beautiful daughter, and took her away with them.

And the men of Gwynllwg assembling together, pursued them, and killing some, and wounding many more, the rest escaped to their master. Which being done, the aforesaid king became greatly excited with anger, and collecting his troops, they formed a camp in the district of Gunliuenes (Gwynllwg), near a fountain, which, in their language, is called Finnun Brittrou; that they might, on the following day, plunder all the country. Which being heard, the inhabitants of Gundliauc (Gwynllwg) were much frightened, and related the matter to the man of God, as follows, "Maelgon, king of North Wales, has come to our borders with his troops, and to-night he remains with his army nigh to the Brittrou fountain; and tomorrow he will lay waste all your territory, and all the males will he furiously slay. Therefore assist us, who are feeble miserable and unarmed, by making peace with the cruel king, for otherwise we shall die.

Those words being heard, the man of God said to the messenger, "Proceed quickly, and we will follow thee." And he, with three clergymen, followed the messenger by night, until they came to Gwynllwg, and the inhabitants of that district being affected with hostile fear, met them, and with great lamentation, besought him, saying, "Lord, assist us, and by thy great clemency, deliver us, because whatever thou dost request of the Lord thou dost obtain." He answered them, "Be ye comforted in the Lord, and be firm and not afraid; let us act well towards God, and he will reduce our enemies to nothing."Then Saint Cadoc, having great confidence in God, departed from thence, and near the camp of his enemies, prayed apart, his disciples being a short distance from him. When morning came, he arose from prayer, and lo, a pillar of a cloud preceded him, which also covering all the tents, and troops of the aforesaid king, hid them, and the day was as a dark night to them, so that no one was able to see another. Then in the middle of the darkness, the holy man appeared before the tent of the king, and saluting him, said, "God save you, O king. I beseech thee, if I have found favor in thy eyes that thou wilt kindly hear my words." To whom the king said, "I am ready, speak on,"and he said, "Why hast thou come to my country, with an armed force for the purpose of plundering and destroying, and especially as we by no means deserved it?" To this the king said, "I confess that I have sinned against thee, but I the more earnestly beseech thy holiness, that thou wilt be merciful to me for what has been done, and wilt forgive it to me, and that by thy intervention, the darkness may depart, whereby we may return uninjured to our own habitations, and all thy country remain in constant peace." The man of God answered, "Thy very great crimes are forgiven thee." And while he was speaking, the light of summer, spread all around, and instantly shone with brightness on the camp. When therefore the king saw this miracle, he arose from his royal chair and he fell on his face and said, "I affirm and ratify the refuge which Arthur, the bravest of heroes, bestowed upon thee, and whoever of my offspring will abbreviate it, may he be cursed, and whoever will observe it, may he be blessed; and to-day I choose thee before all others to be my confessor among South Wales men. And so it was done. And every one returned peaceably to his own country.

20. OF THE BLINDING OF KING RHUN, FOR THE INJURY DONE TO SAINT CADOC.

In the course of some years afterwards, Rhun son of the aforenamed king Maelgon, came from the North, with a numerous army of North Wales men, on an expedition, that he might rob the southern Britons of their possessions and riches, and utterly ravage the country. And the army being assembled in the sight of Maelgon, he strictly ordered the aforesaid Rhun his son, and all the troops of the expedition, not to inflict any injury on Saint Cadoc, because he was his confessor, nor take from his territory one small horned beast without his consent. "And this,"said he, "will be a sign to you; when you come to the land of his country, ye will find his cattle freely feeding in the pastures, and the men depending on our friendship, confident and not frightened, and therefore let them be entirely free from suffering anything from war, since I and their master are connected by a familiar and spiritual covenant. Then they promised with an oath to observe this command of the king. When they came to the country of Gorwenydd, they formed a camp in Caer Trigued, which when the men of Gorwenydd saw, being affrighted they fled from them, and hid themselves in woods, and thickets, and dens, and caves of the earth. And the inhabitants of Penychen, which were beyond the river Nadauan, and all the people of the of the country submitted. When they drove much plunder to the camp, twelve esquires rode the horses from the flocks of the king to give them water. And when they had given water to their horses, they themselves being thirsty and not able to drink the warm water of the spring, said to each other, "Let us ride to the barn of Cadoc, which was reported to be at that time in the farm of the cowherd, that we may have a sufficiency of milk to drink, for there is always plenty to be had at that place."

The twelve persons went there quickly, and addressing the steward roughly, asked him to give them some milk to drink; who being angry refused to give them any, saying, "Are not ye silly, thinking that our master is not a man of great honor and dignity, for he has a family of the number of three hundred persons, that is, one hundred clergymen, and as many soldiers, and the same number of workmen, besides women and children." Then being angry, they rose in a great fury, and taking firebrands in their hands, and mounting their horses, endeavored to put the barn on fire; but through the power of God, it would not burn, but only smoked. At that very time, the aforesaid Rhun was in his tent playing at dice with his eunuchs, and the smoke, like a wooden post, went from the barn of Saint Cadoc in a direct course to his tent, and deprived of eye-sight all who were at the place. But the king, ashamed to mention what had taken place, exhorted the eunuchs to play, "Play,"said he; but they answered, "With our eyes open, we cannot see anything." Then at last, the king confessed that the same had also happened to him. Having called to him all the generals and the nobles, and the knights, he enquired whether it so happened that any one of their companions had inflicted any disgrace on the blessed man.

But they altogether denied the crime; then said the king, "Make diligent enquiry in the camp, whether any of your companions have been absent to day." And when they made the enquiry, they found that twelve esquires had been absent, who being brought forward, the king said to them, "where have you been absent to-day, and what bad thing have ye done? mention every particular, for it is manifest to us that ye have to-day committed a great crime." Then his esquires told him the truth. And without delay, he caused Saint Cadoc to come to him; to whom he said, "Blessed art thou by the Lord, thy entrance has been peaceable, and I have sinned against God, and before thee."

And he said, "Mention what thou hast done." And he related the matter, as follows, "Some of my attendants attacked thy granary, or barn, to set it on fire without my knowledge, on which account, I know that this misfortune of blindness has happened to us, therefore I humbly implore thy benignity that thou wilt be indulgent to me in my miserable state, so that our blindness may be taken away, and clearness of sight, through thy intercession, may be restored to our eyes." On Saint Cadoc praying, they received their former eyesight; which having taken place, the king increased his refuge, as pious Arthur and the father of the aforesaid Rhun had constituted it, confirming it, and declaring the sentence for not observing it. "If any one,"said he, "will break this refuge, let him be excommunicated, but whoever will keep it, may he be loved by God and man."

The king having said these words, gave to him his own messenger with complete horse accoutrements and three principal articles of armour, namely, a shield, a sword, and a spear, and all things that he brought with him, besides what were necessary for his sustenance, which he reserved. These things having been accomplished, they returned to their respective habitations. The blessed Cadoc gave the sword which had been presented to him by king Rhun to Gwrgan Varius Gwrgant Mawr, who then reigned in Gundliete (Glamorgan), with half part of the fish of the river Usk, that he might have seven of them for food during Lent at Llancarvan. Also he gave the horse with all his trappings to the king for one half the fish of the river Need (Neath), so that he might have at Llanmaes during every Lent both boiled and roast food and provisions. He was also possessor of two wooden horses, so very swift that no man could equal them in speed in travelling; on which his servant brought to him necessaries from all parts. And it was a day's journey for the wooden horses in going and returning from Llaucarvan to Need (Neath) and Brycheiniog.

21. OF THE DELIVERANCE OF KING RHUN FROM THE HANDS OF THE MEN OF GWYNLLWG.

The third miracle which God did by Saint Cadoc, in testimony of the written refuge of his son-in-law at Gwynllwg, Rhun, the son of Brychan, uncle of the same, going from his territories, plundered and laid waste the province of Gwynllwg as far as the sea. Therefore the men of Gwynllwg rose against his army, and put him to flight, and defeated his men at the place called Pwll Rhun, and at Pwll Rudd and Lithion and Pwll Gweddillion, which places received their names from them. The aforesaid Rhun was besieged by the men of Gwynllwg, for they altogether dared not to kill the uncle of their master without his orders. Therefore the blessed Cadoc came, and delivered the aforesaid Rhun from being besieged, and he received from him a confession of his crimes, and a confirmation of the refuge, which pious Maelgon and Arthur had granted and ratified to him. And Rhun said as follows, "For the future, since thou hast delivered me,"he said, "may every person born in my nation, who shall not obey the men of Gwynllwg, and break the covenant which I have made with Saint Cadoc, be cursed."

Therefore Saint Cadoc prayed to the Lord, that he would give him a king, who for him should govern his kingdom; and Meurig, son of Enhinti, was given to him; and he gave to him his sweetheart, named Debunn, with all the country. Therefore Saint Cadoc went out to meet him; and receiving Gwynllwg, he blessed them, and commanded that they should keep his refuge, according to the agreement which had been previously made with Maelgon and Arthur; and Meurig undertook to observe this agreement before these witnesses; of the clergy, David, Kenedir, Eliud, (Teilo), Illtyd, Maidoc, Cannon, and many others. And blessed Cadoc commended Meurig, saying, "Patronize my country and inheritance of Gwynllwg, and let it free from all fiscal tribute, except that the men shall go with thee in the army to battle three days, and three nights, and if they shall be longer "with thee, thou shalt give them provisions." And Meurig said, "May it be so for ever." And the man of God added, "Blessed be he who will keep the substance of this agreement; and whoever will not observe it, may he be cursed by God, and all his saints;"and all the clergy said, "Amen."

22. OF THE JOURNEY OF SAINT CADOC INTO SCOTLAND, AND THE MIRACLES THERE PERFORMED BY HIM.

See "Caw of Prydain unmasked"

Again, another miracle worthy of being recorded, divine authority deigned to perform for the praise of his name, and the glory of his faithful servant Cadoc. On a certain day, he spoke to his disciples who were assembled together, as follows, "Since by divine direction, I have for the love of God gone thrice to Jerusalem, and seven times to Rome, it now remains that I should go to the church of Saint Andrew the apostle, which is known to have been built in Albania, which is commonly called Scotland; wherefore, I appoint for you, in my place, the rector and prelate Elli, my pupil, whom we know to be constantly attentive from his infancy to obey divine ordinances, and to be well skilled in evangelical doctrines; to whose instructions in those things attend with diligence to the best of your ability." And they said, "Whatever may please thee, we will willingly agree to." Then the man of God arose, and went with three of his disciples to Scotland, and proceeded to the aforesaid church of Saint Andrew; and whilst he was returning, and had come to a certain city, which is near to the mountain Bannawc, and said to be situated in the middle of Scotland, in that night while there was a pause, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, "The Lord thy God orders thee through me, not to depart hence, but rather that thou remain here for the space of seven years for the purpose of converting the people in this place to faith in the Lord. The man of God here remained the appointed time, teaching the heathen people, and curing all the diseased.

On a certain day, when Cadoc was digging the ground about his constructed monastery, he found a collar bone of some ancient hero, of incredible size, through which, wonderful to be said, a champion might ride without inconvenience. Which being found, Saint Cadoc wondering, said, "I will not go for either meat or drink, but I shall pray for meat, and shed tears for drink, until this wonderful thing, whatever it may be, is explained to us." And in the same night, the voice of an angel from heaven addressed him saying, "Lo the entreaty of thy prayer is acceptable to the ears of the Lord; for what thou hast humbly requested of God, he will grant to thee; but do thou encourage thy clergy, and the rest of the people with words, lest they should be affrighted, if any thing happen to them. For to-morrow, an old giant will arise in the first hour of the day, who may assist the men in digging." Having heard these things, when he rose in the morning, he related to the people what the angel had mentioned. And while he was yet speaking to the people, there appeared to them a horrible revived and immense giant, altogether exceeding the human form in size.

Which having been seen, the inhabitants of the town being terrified, said, "Lo, a phantom transfigured into the form of a man, is come to seduce us." But the monstrous hero immediately placed himself at the feet of the man of God, and said, "Holy Cadoc, eminent servant of God, blessed art thou by God and man; I earnestly beseech thy benignity, that thou wilt not by any means permit my miserable soul, hitherto suffering dreadful punishment in hell, to go there again." "What saint art thou,"said Cadoc, "or of what family wert thou descended, and also thy departure from this life minutely relate." The giant answered, "I reigned formerly for many years beyond the mountain Bannawc; it happened that by the instigation of the devil, I and all my robbers came to these coasts, for the sake of plundering, and laying them waste. The king who reigned over this country at that time, pursuing us with his troops, a battle was fought between us, and I and my army were slain. From the very day of my being killed, we have been hitherto tormented in the devouring flames of hell, but my punishment exceeds in torture the torments of others, because in all these things I have sinned against the great God, as the Scripture saith, "The powerful shall suffer the greater torments." The man of God enquired, by what name was he called. And he answered, "I am called for a long time Caw, with the surname Prydyn or Cawr. To whom, said the man of God, "Rejoice, and be of a cheerful mind, for it is granted to me by God that thou shalt live longer in this world, and for the course of thy present life, if thou wilt exhibit faithful and devoted obedience to God, and wilt humbly obey my doctrines, and wilt perform due satisfaction for thy sins, thy soul will at length be removed from the mournful prison of the body to eternal glory, and there happily reign with God in a state of happiness." To these words the giant thus answered, "All the things that you have ordered appear light to me, and I will willingly perform them effectually." Therefore from that day, to the death of the man of God, the digger performed by digging what had been commanded him. That the miracle might therefore increase in celebrity throughout Scotland, the Scottish reguli gave him four and twenty villages.

23. OF THE BELL WHICH SAINT GILDAS REFUSED TO PART WITH TO THE MAN OF GOD.

The divinely appointed time of seven years having been at length terminated, the blessed Cadoc returned from thence to his own country, namely Llancarvan, and there lived. But it is not to be passed over that a certain eminent Briton, a scholar, and a very excellent writer of the name of Gildas, the son of Caw, a skilful artist, came hither from the borders of Ireland, with a very beautiful spotted Bell, and received from him hospitality for one night at Llancarvan, who particularly noticing the said Bell, struck it. And as the beauty, and the sound, and the color pleased him, he implored the said Gildas that he would be so kind as to sell the bell to him. He refused, saying, "I will not sell it, for I shall offer it upon the altar of Saint Peter at Rome." And the blessed Cadoc with earnest entreaties said, "I will fill it with pence for thee." Gildas also refused the offered sum a second time. Then he added, "I will give thee as much pure gold as it will contain." He refused, for he would by no means part with it, asserting that he had solemnly given it with a vow to God and Saint Peter, and that with the favor of God, he should give what he had vowed; since Solomon thus saith, "A foolish and unfaithful promise is displeasing to God."

Then the said Gildas went to Rome with the Bell, and showed it to the Roman Pope Alexander, saying, "I will offer this bell made by me, and brought here from as far as Ireland, to God and Saint Peter on his altar. The same high Pontiff of the apostolic see, carefully examined it, and endeavored by striking it, to find out its sound to his ears; but it did not produce any sound. Then the Pope, much wondering, asked the clergyman, "How is it that thy bell has an iron tongue, or clapper, and does not sound; so that it is turned to the nature of lead, although it is iron? Shew,"said he, "how it may sound immediately."

And he answered, "My Lord, a certain holy man named Cadoc living in Britain, received me at his place of entertainment in this journey of peregrination, and was the last that struck the bell, when it gave a sweet sound." To whom the Pope replied, "The man of whom thou dost speak, has been long known to me, for he has been here seven times, and in endeavored thrice, going abroad to obtain forgiveness for the souls of his parents and companions." The Pope took the bell again, and blessed it, and said, "Take this bell, blessed and consecrated by me, to the blessed Cadoc, that in this mouth important oaths may be made, and the refuge of all Britain firmly remain; and for these two reasons the Britons shall reverence the bell, because it has been blessed by me, and will be possessed by Saint Cadoc. For I have heard of the incredulity of that nation, and of its rebellious perverseness, therefore I will send this, that by it they may cordially agree and make peace; also if any will perjure himself thereon, unless he will perform due penance, he will be accursed both here and hereafter."

These words having been pronounced by the apostolic prefect, the blessed Gildas taking the oft-mentioned bell, and travelling homewards, brought it to the blessed Cadoc, who remained at Llancarvan, and related to him all that had been enjoined to him by the apostolic prefect relating to the bell. Therefore he admired the bell more earnestly than before, and immediately he struck it with his hands, to produce melodious sounds, and immediately of itself by sounding it produced a melody, which it had before refused before the Pope. Likewise ancient learned men among the Britons assert that the Lord for love to Saint Cadoc, has through this Bell raised to life two persons from the dead, and still testify when they were so raised. They also mention that it twice spoke with human speech, and also spoke a third time.

24. OF THE DEATH OF GWYNLLIW THE FATHER OF SAINT CADOC.

Therefore it happened that Gwynlliw, the father of Saint Cadoc, was ill with a mortal disorder, and he sent one of his servants, named Istan, for his son Cadoc, that he might come as soon as possible to him; who proceeded quickly, until he came to the Taf, which, at that time, was of such could pass across, unless he was taken by the rowing of a boat. For the breadth of the river at that time extended from the ford of Pennugual to the hill of king Morgan, which, in the language of that country, was named Rhiw Morgan. Therefore the aforesaid messenger not finding a boat to cross the river, called aloud on a certain unmarried hermit, named Tylyuguay (Teilo), who lived on the other side of the river, affectionately imploring him to go as quickly as he could to blessed Cadoc, and inform him of the cause of his infirmity; by which intreaties the aid of the hermit was effectually obtained; and the blessed Cadoc with twenty disciples came to the house of the aforesaid Tylyuguay; and there he was hospitably entertained that night with all his companions. Tylyuguay went as usual to the river for the purpose of fishing, for the pious man was accustomed to go a fishing every night and to catch a fish; but on that night twenty-four came into the net for the supper of blessed Cadoc and his companions. Also when the blessed man was thirsty, he asked for drink to be given him; to whom Tylyuguay answered, "We have nothing, Sir, to drink that is proper for drinking, and besides the spring is a great way off"." To whom the man of the Lord reached out his stick, saying, "Take my stick with thee, and wheresoever it may please thee, strike the earth with its end, and immediately the Lord will cause to flow for our need, a fountain of clear water." And so it was done.

On that night, the man anxiously resolved much in his mind how he should pass the river in the morning, and an angel appeared to him, who said, "Be firm in mind, and be not troubled and anxious respecting the difficulty of this matter, as God is a powerful assistant to thee; for to-morrow when thou comest to the brink of this great river, take thy staff in thy hand, and strike the river three times, in the name of the holy Trinity, in the same manner as did Moses, the leader of the people of Israel, and the Lord God will divide this river to you, and cause you to pass dry-shod."

When it became full light in the morning, Cadoc with all his companions arose; and having confidence in God, went with them to the brink of the aforesaid river, and there he did what had been commanded. He therefore struck the river Tâf, and it immediately divided, the upper part of the river towards the mountain, and the lower part gliding downwards, like Jordan in the office of the baptism of Christ, of whom it is said, "What ailed thee, O thou sea, that thou fleddest, and thou Jordan, that thou Mast driven back?"The blessed Cadoc, and his company, passed through the channel of the river dry-shod, and the oft-mentioned Tylyuguay called after them, saying, "Beloved servants of the Lord, loosen this river from its present state to its former course, before you depart hence, that fish may be taken therefrom; but if it can be done, cause that it be diminished in depth and breadth, so that it may be passed through on foot."

And the man of God, together with his disciples, prayed that the river might remain less for ever, according to the petition of Tylyuguay, And as they prayed, lo, a great river, as an immense torrent, burst from the broken rocks, and like a foaming sea went precipitately towards the breadth and depth have remained less to the present day; also it carried a very large stone, as if torn from the infernal whirlpool, upon the land of the aforesaid hermit, and there left it. When therefore the hermit saw this, he shewed it to the blessed man; who accordingly ordered the heap of stones to be called by the name of the religious inhabitant, Carn, that is the Rock of Tylyuguay.

The venerable man then departing, came to his sick father; who, rejoicing greatly on his arrival, said to him, "I have sent for thee to me, that at the end of my life thou mayest hear my confession." Then the blessed Cadoc gave to him the sacrament of the eucharist, and received his confession. And he taking breath, said to his son, blessing him, "May thou be blessed,"he said, "because the Lord has had mercy on me on thy account, and hast contributed to obtain for me his compassion; wherefore I give to thee, before all that are present, and hear my will, all this my country, for which thou hast long sustained many injuries, and some losses; that is, I grant to thee the privilege from the fountain, which is called in the British language Ffynon Hen, that is from the Old Fountain; until it comes to the entrance of the river Nadawan, that all kings, earls, and nobles, and also military officers, and domestics, be buried in the cemetery of thy Monastery at Llancarvan; that is, let every one be there buried, except exiles, and women dying in child-bed. Whosoever will observe the command of this privilege, the Lord will preserve him now, and in the time to come; but him who will not observe it, may God destroy both in the present and future ages." And all the people answered Amen.

Gwynlliw the father of the blessed Cadoc being dead, he was buried in his own monastery, which from his name, is called in the British language, Eglwys Gwynlliw (Church of St. Wollos). And Cadoc having honorably performed the funeral rites of his father, returned home with his clergy.

25. OF THE DROWNING OF SAINT BARRUC AND SAINT GWALCHES, AND OF THE MANUAL BOOK FOUND IN THE BELLY OF A SALMON.

It happened that at another time the blessed Cadoc on a certain day sailed with two of his disciples, namely Barruc and Gwalches from the island of Echni, which is now called Holme, to another island named Barry. When therefore he prosperously landed in the harbor, he asked his said disciples for his Enchiridion, that is manual book; and they confessed that theyliidTthrough forgetfulness, lost it in the aforesaid island. Which he hearing, he immediately compelled them to go aboard a ship, and sail back to recover their book; and burning with anger, said, "Go, not to return."

Then his disciples, by the command of their master, without delay quickly went aboard a boat, and by sailing, got to the said island. Having obtained the aforesaid volume, they soon in their passage returned to the middle of the sea, and were seen at a distance by the man of God sitting on the top of a hill in Barry, when the boat unexpectedly overturned, and they were drowned. The body of Barruc being cast by the tide on the shore of Barry, was there found, and in that island buried, which from his name is so called to the present time. But the body of the other, namely Gwalches, was carried by the sea to the island of Echni, and was there buried.

About the ninth hour, Cadoc the servant of God being desirous to refresh his body wasted by fastings, commanded his attendants to procure some fishes for dinner, who went to the sea for the purpose of fishing, and found a very large salmon on the sand, and rejoicing brought it to their master; in the bowels of which, when it was cut open, they found the aforesaid book free from all injury by water, and white, which the man of the Lord, giving thanks to God gladly received, and declared that it was manifest to all that nothing was impossible to God.

26. OF WOLVES CHANGED INTO STONES.

Another miracle not less wonderful, divine mercy deigned to perform by the merits of his faithful servant Cadoc. When his sheep depastured on the aforesaid island Echni, lo, two wolves from England, by swimming came to that place. Having torn many of the sheep, and slain some with their rapacious mouths, they attempted to swim towards the British sea; but when they had come to the middle they were changed by divine judgment, because they had irritated, and slain his sheep, into stones, and in the British language were called Cunbleid, that is Wolf Stones.

27. HOW SAINT CADOC BY HIS PRAYERS PRODUCED FROM THE EARTH, IN CORNWALL, A HEALTH-BEARING FOUNTAIN.

Nor it is unpleasant to mention the goodness of God in his more wonderful miracles, but it is agreeable to make his eminent servant more celebrated in miracles, by his affording a most excellent remedy, and comfort for human infirmity. For lately, when the said most illustrious man came from the mount of St. Michael, which is known to be in Cornwall, and in the idiom of the district, is called Dinsol, and there the same archangel, who was venerated by all who came there, being hot, and fatigued from his journey was very thirsty. And the place where this happened was very dry; therefore the blessed Cadoc struck the ground with his stick, and immediately a full flowing fountain sprang from the ground, and therefore they who accompanied him, also drank like the Israelites athirst in the wilderness, when Moses struck the rock with his stick, and the water flowed in abundance. As all were satisfied with water, they said to their companions. "Let us earnestly beseech the divine goodness that all such persons, as shall come to this sacred fountain, may therefrom, with the favor of God, receive the cure of divers diseases; and as it extinguished our raging thirst, so let it heal the painful disorders of bodies." For if any sick person, having firm confidence in God, shall drink of that fountain, he will receive the cure of his belly and bowels, and he will drive all venomous worms from his body. And after the men of Cornwall saw that frequent cures of the disorders of both sexes were constantly effected at that fountain by divine piety, they built a small church in honor of Saint Cadoc, near the fountain.

28. OF THE THIEF WHO STOLE AN OX.

It therefore happened that on a certain day, the surveyor of Saint Cadoc, who at that time they called the sexton of Llancarvan, being forced by the command of the abbot, and the necessity of the clergy, came to the court of a certain regulus, named Rhytherch, carrying with him the gospel of Gildas. There was in that court, on the same day, an action against a certain rustic for taking away an ox by theft, he denying with all his might the crime which was alleged against him. Then the surveyor came to him, and in a joke, drew his naked knife of no small size, and brandishing it with vibrating hand, said, "O foolish man, this is the knife of Saint Cadoc, if therefore thou hast perjured thyself, thou shalt immediately die, for it shall pierce thy bowels." Then the rustic being greatly terrified, threw himself down at the feet of the clergyman, confessing himself guilty, and saying, "Forgive me for the love of God, and Saint Cadoc, for I have committed the crime of stealing the ox, and have besides done perjury." Which being known, the king, with the standers by, offered to the gospel of Gildas, and enriched it with a clerical donative, and perpetually employed the thief in the service of the monastery of Saint Cadoc.

29. OF THE GOSPEL OF GILDAS.

When blessed Gildas lived in the isle of Echni, and performed the ministerial duties, he wrote a missal book, and offered it to Saint Cadoc, when he became his confessor; therefore that book was called the Gospel of Gildas. This is the tradition of that volume. If any one of the progeny of Cynaythawy should perjure himself on that gospel, his life will be shortened; and if any one of the clergy of Carban valley, that is coming from Llancarvan, induced by necessity, and carrying the Gospel of Gildas, should come to some one of the offspring of Cynaythavy, and should find him by chance putting on his garment, he shall not put it all on without clerical leave, but always remain, doing his duties, half clothed, and proceed with naked feet to the Carban valley. This is the tradition also of the vari-colored bell. "If any one of the offspring of Lywthyly shall swear a false oath upon the vari-colored bell, his life will be shortened, and he will not be enriched by inheritance, but will soon die. If any one of the clergy of Carban valley, compelled by some business, shall, carrying the bell, go to some one of the descendants of Lywthyly, and by chance should find him clothing himself with a garment, he shall not put it all on without the leave of a clergyman, but go quickly half undressed to Carban valley.

30. OF THE MIXTURE OF THE WATER OF JORDAN AND THAT OF THE CORNISH FOUNTAIN, WHICH AFTER A SPACE OF TIME WAS USED WITH EFFECT.

The blessed Cadoc being desirous to travel abroad, visited the thresholds of Saint Peter, then Jerusalem, and afterwards the river Jordan, of which he filled a bottle, and brought it with him to Britain. He placed the sacred water that he had brought in the aforesaid fountain, which by entreaty, he had produced from the ground in the district of Cornwall, and it became more holy by this position and mixture; for previously it restored only some to health, but afterwards it cured more than a hundred fold.

31. OF THE CONVERSATION OF SAINT CADOC, AT THE RIVER NEATH.

After a space of time. Saint Cadoc hearing that there were many places which were solitary, and suitable for hermits, visited them, that he might see; and in them he remained a short space of time, but left them after the departure of two of his clergy. On a certain day, when he walked about the banks of the river Neath saw a white boar lying under a tree, which his companions killed; he saw, secondly, bees coming, and entering into a hollow tree; and thirdly, the nest of a hawk at the top of the tree. Then he sent those gifts to king Arthmael, who gave to the blessed Cadoc the liberty of dwelling and possessing that land. "Thenceforth,"said Cadoc, "here is a boar, and a honeycomb, and here is a furious hawk; that place is fertile, which therefore Cadoc loves, they will make him rejoice, seeking blessed things among such tokens, they will make me glad; praising, I will commend the giver; why should I not rejoice, he has given, and will confer honor; here I will dwell, because I behold significant things. He would not that we should extend our progress any further; they point out, rather they compel; here let us remain; boar's flesh shall aid by procuring what is fit by hunting; a honied sweetness constitutes feasts for the clergy; a table with birds obtained by a comely enemy; our health not being sickly is then without disease."

32. OF A RELIGIOUS EDIFICE WHICH THE MAN OF GOD BUILT IN BRITTANY.

In that time, when Cadoc of venerable memory went to Rome, and passed through all the places of the saints that were built in Italy and France, for the sake of seeing the relics of the saints, it happened that he came to a certain province formerly called Armorica, afterwards Lettau, but now the Lesser Brittain. And he heard that there was there a certain island without inhabitants, placed in the sea, and distant from the shore about the space of the third part of a league. Going into a boat with his disciples, he prosperously arrived at the harbor of the place; and seeing that it was beautiful and fertile, he said to his followers, "My brethren, I choose this place, by the favor of God, and here, if it pleases you, I desire to remain." And they answering said, "Sir, what seems good to thee, we will willingly do." He then erected there an elegant church with stones; and afterwards caused to be built by masons, a stone bridge skillfully constructed with arched work, and having its arches cemented with mortar. These things having been accomplished, on a certain night, while he indulged in sleep, he heard one speaking with an angelic voice, as follows, "Cadoc, the most faithful of the servants of God, it is not lawful for thee to live any longer here, for thou oughtest to return very soon to thy country, because thy clergy grieve not a little on account of thy long absence."

Therefore morning praises, as usual, having been given to God, he sent for all the monks to him, and related to them his vision, saying, "My most dear companions and brethren, proceed in the Lord, for here I cannot remain any longer, but I firmly command you that ye persevere constantly in the service of God." These words being heard, they began to weep bitterly; then he appointed to them in his place, a prior from his disciples, whose name was Cadwaladr. And as he blessed his disciples, he received from them leave to depart; and then he began his journey homewards, and passing prosperously over immense tracts of country, succeeded at length in arriving at his own church of Llancarvan.

Before much time was passed, the monks of the aforesaid island, went out for the purpose of seeing the bridge, being tired of the absence of their master, and following with the desire of their minds and the prospect of their eyes, in the way on which he had departed, when while they were looking on, the bridge was overthrown so completely that it was reduced to nothing, as if it never had been built. Which being seen, they returned to the church with great lamentation, and falling headlong to the ground, fasted for three days, and three nights, praying to the Lord for consolation on account of so great a misfortune; and on the third night, a voice was sent from heaven to the prior of the place in a dream, saying, "God has heard your prayer for the love of Saint Cadoc, for to-morrow you will see the bridge whole, and uninjured. Morning praises having been sung, the prior mentioned the revelation made known to him by God; then the monks, for great joy, ran as soon as they could to behold what had been promised, and found the bridge uninjured, and seven times stronger than before. And when they had carefully examined the bridge in all parts, they returned joyful to their oratory, praising and blessing the Lord. This miracle becoming known throughout the country, all the inhabitants of the province gave honor and praise to God, and Saint Cadoc. For the blessed Cadoc is by that nation called Cathodw, from which appellation the island has received its name, that is Ynys Cathodw, in which are many kinds of fruits, that are said to effect cures of various diseases.

33. OF THE COUNTRYMAN WHO UNLAWFULLY BEHELD THE SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS OF THE AUDITORS OF SAINT CADOC.

The same patron of venerable memory long ago built a handsome monastery, with stone materials in Scotland, near the mountain Bannawc, and having assembled brethren therein, he appointed that devout service should constantly be rendered to God by them. In a certain porch of which monastery, the bodies of three of his disciples lay, covered with marble monuments, but no one dared to look into their tomb, neither married, nor unmarried, but only persons in holy orders. There was on the outside in the wall of the porch a certain hole, through which the kings, and nobles of that country, if by chance a great dispute arose between them, were to place their hands, and make oath, and if any one broke that oath, he should die before the end of the year. According to custom, a multitude of the common people were assembled on the day of the festivity of Saint Cadoc to hear mass, and the celebration of mass having been ended, a certain foolish countryman, making a great noise, spoke to the presbyters in the midst of the people, "Will you let me go to the hole, that I may look through it?"They answered, and said to him, "Go, and Saint Cadoc will make a mark of revenge to appear on thee." The rash man therefore ran to the hole; and covered one of his eyes with his hand, and with the other looked through the window, and as soon as said, the uncovered eye cracked, and by the optic nerve hung on his face. The countryman therefore uttered a great and mournful lamentation, and quickly went to the crowds of the people, which being seen, all the common people with loud voice rendered praise to God and Saint Cadoc, saying, "From the rising to the setting of the sun, the name of the Lord is to be praised." And the said countryman went about from place to place, throughout the province of Lintheamus, not covering his extracted eye, and much money was given him for showing his eve-ball that had been torn out. Therefore his fellow-countrymen more and more learned to fear God, and to glorify him reverently with his Saint. But as it would be too laborious to mention with a pen all the miracles and wonders of this holy patron, those few, from many, will be sufficient for those who read devoutly, for no one is able to relate all his wonderful acts, unless Cadoc himself should rise from the dead; but as he was removed in a white cloud from Britain to the city of Beneventum, we have thought proper, with the favor of God, to mention the particulars with our pen.

Here ends the Life of Saint Cadoc, also called Sophias; and here begins his passion on the 9th op the Calends of February, in the city of Beneventum.

34. HOW SAINT CADOC WAS REMOVED IN A WHITE CLOUD FROM CARBAN VALLEY TO BENEVENTUM.

The angel of the Lord appeared to blessed Cadoc, in a dream, on the eve of Palm Sunday, and said to him, "God has decreed that thou shalt now depart from the land of Britain." To which the blessed man answering said, "All things that shall be ordered me by the Lord, I will willingly perform, as far as I am able, but how I shall depart from hence, I do not at all know." To whom the angel answered, "To-morrow, after thou hast preached to thy people, thou shalt return to the place that is nigh to thy castle, where thou hast been accustomed to rest after preaching, and there stopping, shalt remain a little while, and a bright cloud shall cover thee, and thereon thou shalt be bodily carried to the city of Beneventum, as Elias was in a chariot of fire to Paradise, and this will be a sign to thee; when thou wilt descend from the cloud, the abbot of that city will, in that hour, be honorably buried in thy presence, and being deposited in the ground after the manner of abbots, the monks of that place will appoint thee in his room. Wherefore thou shalt give up thy principal town. Llancarvan, with all its clergy, and common people to thy unmarried disciple Elli, in the sight of all, and shalt make him a doctor, and a rector to them. And in the same night, the said messenger of God will mention to the Prior of the city of Beneventum, in a vision, while asleep, those things, saying, "To-morrow, a certain learned clergyman, a western Briton, a chosen servant of God, will come hither to you, and him earnestly beseech to be appointed an abbot over you, because your abbot has died on this night; for God has chosen him to be appointed in the room of your abbot; and he will be called Sophias among you, because he is full of the wisdom of God." The blessed Cadoc therefore rising in the morning, related what had been foretold to him by the angel to his very dear unmarried auditor, Elli; and about the first hour, Elli, secretly, with respect to what has been mentioned, assembled according to custom a procession on Palm Sunday, with the relics of the saints; and he went from church, with the clergy and people following him, to the rivulet of Saint Cadoc, which in the British language is called Pistill Cattwg, and there, as it is said, he preached to the people, from a mound, which is nigh the rivulet, until the third hour; and about the third, namely, the holy communion, after preaching, he returned with all the company to his castle, and there remained, repeating his i)reaching; and having at length finished his sermon, according to the angelic commandment, he spoke to them as follows.

"Hear me, brethren, and receive my words into your ears, for to-day I appoint my disciple Elli to be rector and doctor over you, and do you receive him cheerfully, and be humbly obedient to him, for I myself am ignorant with respect to the end of my life." For Elli alone was acquainted with the matter, and he bore the words heavily in his heart. Then the man of God commanded them all and said, "I command you all in the name of the Lord, that no powerful worldly king, nor bishop, nor nobleman shall ever adjudge, with respect to any dispute or injury over you; but if any one shall inflict an injury upon you, or if any one of you should injure another, or if any one in some other matter, should in any way adjudge over you, let judges be made from amongst yourselves. And with respect to the place of judgment, let it be under the shade of the hazel tree, which I myself have planted nigh the monastery, and it will give its pledge to stand in correct judging, in the hand of the abbot in the day of trial."

And the abbot placed it upon the altar; and said, "May they adjudge right according to the intention of the synod, and the judicial series in the book which I have written. If any one will despise this commandment, so as to break it, may he be cursed in the judgment of the supreme Judge, and not live long, nor ever have plenty of what is good, and whoever will keep it, may he be blessed, and may God lengthen his life, and an angel of the Lord in all places attend on him."

While he yet spoke, lo, the brightness of God suddenly surrounded them, and all alike fell headlong on their faces to the ground, not being able to behold such a quantity of light. All having therefore fallen to the gi-ound, the blessed Cadoc was taken off in a white cloud from their eyes, and disappeared; and immediately in the twinkling of an eye descended from the cloud in the city of Beneventum, and was seen amongst those persons; who were burying the abbot; and wonderful to be said, he constantly, and perfectly knew their language by the gift of the Holy Spirit, and they likewise his; and they soon knew that it was he, of whom the angel had before spoken to the Prior.

And in the same hour, a congregation of all the clergy and many monks, and the bishop of the city, having assembled, with common assent they willingly ordained him an abbot over them, and named him Sophias, for they saw that he was full of divine wisdom, and because it was by that name, it was before ordered by the angel that he should be called. A little after, he fortified a great part of the city with a wail, which had previously been built with the mud of the earth, and the material becoming by degrees more and more ruinous, had fallen into rubbish. The workmen being in want of spring water, and leaving the work on that account unfinished, addressing the holy Sophias, said, "We cannot by any means work, because we cannot find water near at hand." Accordingly Saint Sophias prayed that very night to the Lord that he would condescend to shew what he would do in this matter. After prayer he rested with sleep his limbs that were weary from watchings, and an angel descending from above kindly comforted him that he should not be sorrowful on that account, but that rising in the morning he should go to the wall of the city, and foretold to him that he would there find a plentiful flowing fountain for the use of the masons. The holy man therefore, according to the command of the angel, stretching himself and shaking off sloth early in the morning, went with haste to see the wall of the city, that had been begun, and found a deep fountain near it.

35. HOW SAINT ELLI WAS ACCUSTOMED TO VISIT THE BLESSED CADOC ANNUALLY.

And Elli was accustomed to go very often with his disciples to the city of Beneventum, for the purpose of visiting the blessed Cadoc, also called Sophias; in some of which visitings, some persons died, and were honorably buried in the monastery of Saint Sophias; whose sepulchres are placed together in one series, in order, before the altar, from one wall to another. Eight very decent marble monuments may be there found.

36. HOW SAINT CADOC WAS RAISED TO BE THE BISHOP OF BENEVENTUM.

The bishop of that city being dead, in the following night an angel of the Lord appeared in a vision to Saint Sophias, commanding him from the Lord that he should receive the episcopal order; also in the same night a messenger from heaven revealed to the Archdeacon, whilst he indulged in sleep, that he should on the following day, without delay, by divine command, promote Saint Sophias to the degree of bishop. The Archdeacon, with the company of the clergy, and the common people being assembled together, he related to them all what the divine oracle had made known to him by angelic revelation respecting the promoting of Saint Sophias. The report of the Archdeacon pleased all who heard it, and they unanimously appoint Saint Sophias to the episcopal see.

After a short space of time, while the said person lived in his episcopal dignity, and governed his diocese in a mild, and holy manner, he heard an angel of the Lord mentioning to him in a vision of the night, "Lo, an option is given to thee by the Lord; now choose by what death thou wilt leave this mortal life, and migrate to the eternal kingdom." He answered him, "Having my option, I choose martyrdom, as it is before the Lord the most excellent of deaths." To whom the angel said, "Be firm,"said he, "in heart and mind, because God is with thee; for to-morrow, a certain cruel king will plunder this city, and whilst thou wilt celebrate the divine mysteries of the mass, a certain soldier of his accomplices, entering the monastery, and brandishing his spear, will cruelly kill thee with its point, upon the altar." Therefore the blessed Sophias gave thanks to God, and said to the angel, "I am ready for martyrdom, for by this death, our Lord Jesus Christ, and his apostles, and some others have triumphed in the world, and obtained the glory of a heavenly kingdom." The blessed Sophias awaking, arose to morning praises, as usual, and as the day proceeded, about the first hour, he dressed himself in his missal vestments, being about to celebrate the divine sacrifice. As he sang mass, lo, the aforesaid tyrant, having assembled his army, plundered the suburbs contiguous to the city; of whom, some came into the city for the sake of plundering. Whence out-cries, and wailings resounded on all sides through the city, but Saint Sophias stood undaunted, and did not in the least interrupt the celebration of the mass, although he was conscious of the evil. Then forthwith, one of the horsemen, entered the church wherein he partook of the holy sacrament, and with incited step, and raging fury, pierced Saint Sophias, with a lance, as he stood on the altar, and was partaking of the salutary consecration of the body and blood of our Lord. Who, besmeared with his blood, and with eyes lifted up towards heaven, commended his soul to the Lord, saying, "Lord Jesus receive my spirit." Also he humbly prayed for his murderer, in like manner as did the first martyr Stephen, "Lord, Lord,"said he, "lay not this sin to his charge, for he knows not what he has done,"and turning his prayer to the Lord proceeded in continuation, "Almighty Lord, invisible King, Jesus Christ, the Saviour, grant me my request, assist the Christians who dwell in my territories, give favor to my body, that all persons who may have any part of my bones, or of those of my disciples, may perform miracles, and expel demons, and may every disease be far distant from them. Let there be no unfruitfulness among their fruits, nor barrenness in their corn, but let the wealth of all good persons be increased, and forgive them their crimes, whereby they will reverence me on the earth, and always glorify thee in heaven." And lo, a voice was sent from the white cloud, sayang, "Cadoc, my servant, ascend to the kingdom of my Father, and what thou dost request, I will perform for thee, I will not make thee sorrowful, for thou art blessed, since thou hast been mindful of me in thy last sufferings. And I say unto thee, if any one shall be in great distress, and mindful of thy name, will invoke me for thee, he shall be liberated from the trouble of that distress."

After the Lord had spoken, he protected himself with the mark of the salvation-bearing cross, and gave up his spirit into the hands of the Almighty. And lo, suddenly a great brightness shone on the people devoutly engaged in performing his funeral rites, and assembled for his funeral, so that no one of them was able to sustain it. They brought his body, wrapped in white linen cloths, and placed it in a silver coffin, and carried it to the place of burial with hymns, and psalms, and spiritual songs, and many lamps, and buried him honorably. And many more miracles were performed after his death, at his sepulchral monument, than had been before in his life-time. Sight was restored to the blind, and walking to the lame, the leprous were cleansed, and the demons were driven away from those who were possessed by them.

They built a large church in honor of him over his venerable sepulchre, into which no Briton is permitted to enter; which was so done, as the learned men of the city of Beneventum say, lest some Briton should in future come there from his principal monastery, that is from Liancarvan, and take away from thence by stealth the sacred earth of the relics of his body, and from the taking away of that very precious deposit, all the miracles, and the whole grace of the saint, should together with that earth of the precious relics of his body be removed from thence to his own land at Llancarvan, that is Britain, where he was born. But what is more grievous and horrible to be heard, it is certain that after the taking away of his sacred body, the fine flowing fountain that was near the city, which God by his entreaty had caused to flow from the earth for the use of the workmen, came like a sea over the city, and the inhabitants forbode its being overwhelmed. Saint Cadoc, whilst he flourished in this life, avoided human praise, and did many things known to God only, and unknown to mortals; also he never passed by, with any interval or intermission, perseverance in frugality and economy, fastings, watchings, and prayers. He not only performed his miracles in his life-time, but effected them beyond number after his passage from the prison of this deceitful world; through means of our Lord Jesus Christ, who with God the Father, and the Holy Spirit lives, and reigns for ever and ever. Amen.

37. OF THE BELLOWING OF THE COFFIN OF SAINT CADOC WHEN STRUCK BY SOME ONE, AND THE DEATH OF THE STRIKER.

After the departure of the most gracious Cadoc from transitory to eternal things, a certain very powerful English viscount, named Eilaf, came to the country of Glamorgan, with a large company of attendants, for the purpose of plundering and destroying; and the clergy of the celebrated Cadoc having heard an account of his impiety, fled from Llancarvan, with the coffin of the holy man, and other relics, bearing the means for their protection, until they came to the place, Mammeliat, and there they hid themselves. And when they had been there a short time, a multitude of the Danish and English robbers came to them; who beholding the coffin, sought to take it off with them; and from four to one hundred men attempted with all their might to raise it, nor were they able to remove it from the place. Then they became angry, and one more mad than the others, ran forwards quickly, and taking a stout stick, struck it; and on being struck, it produced a loud bellowing noise, like a bull, and greatly frightened the whole army, and immediately there was a great earthquake in those parts. The coffin being at length left by them, one of them more unhappy than the others, being induced by greediness, cut off its golden pinnacle with a hatchet, which fell into his lap, and immediately like fire burned his bosom; and stupefied, and excited by the pain of heat, he resolved to fix the pinnacle in its place; and being so fixed, it firmly adhered, as if it had been united by gold soldering. Which being done, the unhappy violator of the coffin melted in the sight of the whole army, like wax before the fire. This miracle having been seen by them, and being affected with fear on account of the aforesaid things, they returned as exiles. Afterwards they had not a desire for plundering the before-mentioned places of the patron, and ceased to lay waste his territories.

38. OF THE OX CUT INTO PIECES AND BOILED, AND AFTERWARDS RESTORED TO LIFE.

On a certain time, Meredydd, king of Reinuc, came with a powerful force of enemies to his property in Glamorgan, that he might there reign; where having come, he ordered them to plunder, and to drive off oxen to the camp, for food. And they therefore brought a hundred oxen, amongst which was a very fat one, that was stolen from the townsmen of the blessed Cadoc; and when slain, it was cut into pieces, that by cooking it might be prepared for satisfying the hunger of the king, and his companions; but it could not by any means be roasted by coals, nor boiled in water. Which being told to the king he ordered all the aforesaid oxen to be restored to their owners. And when they were all brought together, the ox that had been killed, which I have above mentioned, appeared alive and well among the others. Then every one took his own ox, praising and glorifying God in his excellent servant Cadoc.

39. OF THE BREAKING OF IRON RINGS.

After a very long interval of time, three foreigners bound with iron rings, came from the East to the monastery of the aforesaid Saint, on the day of his solemnity. And while they celebrated mass, those iron bands, all the people beholding them, broke. Wherefore that this miracle might be known to all, they hung those rings on the altar.

40. OF A STEWARD BEING SLAIN, AND AFTEUWARDS RESTORED TO LIFE.

Also the said Saint owned part of a certain field in Ireland, on the banks of the river Liniphi, where he had a very faithful steward, who offensively preserved the corn of his master, that the flocks of the neighbors should not devour it, and he shut up in confinement the cattle of his neighbors. The governor of that province being inflamed with anger, collected together a hundred armed men, who together attacked the steward of the blessed man; and all mutually striking him, each singly wounded him with one stroke of his weapon, and killed him; not one alone, but all were equally guilty of the murder. And they departing after his death, and looking back, saw the man who had been before killed, in health and standing; which being seen, they hastily directed their steps to him, and observed how soon the wounds of his head had been cured, whose scars being healed, they appeared no larger than the marks of bulrushes. Then all reflecting on what they had done, acknowledged that they were guilty of his death, and departing went together to the king, and related to him all that they had seen respecting this miracle. And the king when he heard it, enlarged the bounds of his paternal property, and magnified him during all his life. The learned among the Irish, who lived in the monastery of his disciple, the blessed Finnian, bear witness that if any one of the clergy of Saint Cadoc went to them, they honorably received him, and made him as one of their heirs. And this is said to be a token of their justice, that if an old man touch a lock of the monastery with his hand, he Mill open it without a key.

41. OF THE INCLINATION OF A TREE UNDER THE FEET OF THE PREACHER.

Formerly a king of Reinuc named Cynan, with the surname of Garwyn (son of Brochwel Ysgythrog) having collected a large force of troops, resolved to invade all the country of Glamorgan, and after a slaughter of the men, and a robbery of the cattle and household goods, to claim it to himself. And removing their camp, they settled on the banks of the great river Neath; which becoming known, the king of the country of Glamorgan was struck with fear, and earnestly requested the clergy of the oftmentioned saint, that with the relics, and chest of the said saint, they would go to meet the king of Reinuc, and humbly request of him not to inflict any injury on them undeservedly. When they went with the relics to the side of the river Neath, one of them climbed up a high tree with a spotted bell, that from thence he might speak to the king, for owing to the great flood of water, they could not pass through the river. Then calling aloud from the top of the tree, he preached to him respecting the miracles of the blessed Cadoc; and as he preached, the tree under the feet of the clergyman, began by degrees to turn towards the ground, and to make itself passable instead of a bridge, so that passing over it to the other side of the river he might discourse with the king face to face.

Which being seen, the aforesaid king conferred the protection of peace on all the country, and then the whole army becoming pacific, they returned to their respective habitations. O truly just man, in whom deceit was not found, he judged no one unjustly, and despised no one. No person ever saw him greatly rejoicing nor very sorrowful, except in the hours of prayer, when with tears he offered prayers to God. Adverse things never dispirited him, nor did prosperous ones exalt him; nothing was ever in his mouth besides Christ, and what belonged to him on account of obtaining correction; nothing was in is heart but peace, and patient piety with compassion. He searched daily by the Holy Spirit the things that were not his own, but those of Jesus Christ, for he was a chosen temple of the Holy Spirit. And therefore for all these things, and others like them, he shines in inaccessible and inestimable eternal glory, which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, nor hath entered into the heart of man, in heaven with the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, Three in One true God Almighty, to whom is honor, and glory, virtue and power, fortitude, and government continuing without end, for ever and ever. Amen.

No one can relate the miracles performed by Cadoc; It is because he is not here with his mode of speaking; Christ, the Creator of the world, will grant pardon. To him, who wrote a Life with faults, named Lifris.

42. OF THE GENEALOGY OF THE BLESSED CADOC.

The genealogy of the blessed Cadoc arises from the most noble emperors of Rome, from the time of the incarnation of Jesus Christ, Augustus Cesar, in whose time Christ was born, begat Octvianus, Octwianus begat Tiberius, Tiberius begat Caius, Cains begat Claudius, Claudius begat Vespasian, Vespasian begat Titus, Titus begat Domitian, Domitian begat Nero, under whom the apostles Peter and Paul suffered, Nero begat Trajan, Trajan begat Adrian, Adrian begat Antonius, Antonius begat Commodus, Commodus begat Meobus, Meobus begat Severus, Severus begat Antonius, Antonius begat Aucanus, Aucanus begat Aurelian, Aurelian begat Alexander, Alexander begat Maximus, Maximus begat Gordian, Gordian begat Philip, Philip begat Decius, Decius begat Gallus, Gallus begat Valerian, Valerian begat Cleopatra, Cleopatra begat Aurelian, Aurelian begat Titus, Titus begat Probus, Probus begat Carosius, Carosius begat Dioclesian, who perscuted the Christians throughout the whole world; for in his time the blessed martyrs Alban, that is Julian, Aaron, and many others suffered. Dioclesian begat Galerius, Galerius begat Constantine the Great the son of Helen, Constantine begat Constantius, Constantius begat Maximian, with whom the soldiers of the Britons went out from Britain, and he it was who killed Gratian, emperor of the Romans, and he held the empire of all Europe, and on account of their valour did not allow the fighting men, whom he brought with him from Britain, to return to their native land, but assigned them several provinces and regions, even from the pooi, which is on the top of Mount Jove as far as the city, Cantguic by name, and as far as the western mound, that is, Crug Ochideint. And from those knights is sprung the race, which is called Lettau (Llydaw) (to wit, the Bretones)" And so Maximian begat Owain, Owain begat Nor, Nor begat Solor, Solor begat Gluigius, Gluigius begat Gwynllyw, Gwynllyw begat the most blessed Cadog of whom we are speaking.

Cadog's grandmother is Marchell (wife of Brachan) map Tewdrig (martyr) map Teudfall map Idnerth map Erb map Erbic map Meuric map Henninni (daughter) map Cinfarch, map Merchiaun map Gwrwst map Coel Hen Guotepac map Tecmant map Teuhant map Telpwyll map Urban ... map Aballac map Beli whose mother is Anna."

A repetition of the pedigree of the Saint; the matter on the side of his father from the best stocks of the kings of Ireland; Briscethach begat Brusc, Brusc begat Urbf, Urbf begat Anlach, Anlach begat Brachan, Brachan begat Gladusa, the mother of saint Cadog.

This is the Pedigree of his mother Gwladys, from the race of the kings of Glamorgan and Mecumen. Anna, whom learned men say was the cousin of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, bare Beli, Beli begat Aballach, Aballach begat Baallad, Baallad begat Oudolenn, Oudolenn begat Eudos, Eudos begat Ebiud, Ebiud begat Outigirun, Outigirun begat Oudicant, Oudicant begat Ritigirnus, Ritigirnus begat Rimetel, Rimetel begat Grat, Grat begat Urban, Urban begat Teilpuill, Teilpuill begat Teuhuant, Teuhuant begat Tecmant, Tecmant begat Guotepauc, Guotepauc begat Coilhen, Coilhen begat Guorgust, Guorgust begat Merchiaun, Merchiaun begat Cinmarch, Cinmarch begat Henninni, his daughter, Henninni bare Meuric, Meouricus begat Erbic, Erbicus begat Yrb, Yrb begat Idnerh, Idnerh begat Teitfall, Teitfall begat Teudiric. Teudiric, who was made a martyr in Gwent, to wit, Merthir Teudiric, who begat Marchell, mother of Gladusa. Now Gladusa bare the blessed Cadog.

44. OF THE PEDIGREE OF GWLADYS, THE MOTHER OF KING GWTNLLIW, THE FATHER OF THE VENERABLE CADOC, REPEATED FROM THE ABOVE-MENTIONED WOMAN.

Anna begat Beli, Beli begat Aballach, Aballach begat Baallad, Baallad begat Eugeuein (Owain), Eugeuein (Owain) begat Brithguen, Brithguein begat Dwfwnn, Dwfwnn begat Onwedd, Onwedd begat Enwerydd, Enwerydd begat Amgoloit, Amgoloit begat Gorddwfn, Gorddwfa begat Dwfn, Dwfn begat Gwrddoli, Gwrddoli begat Doli, Doli begat Guorceng(Gwrgain), Guorceng(Gwrgain) begat Cain, Cain begat Tegid, Tegid begat Padarn Pels Rudawc, Padarn begat Edeyrn, Edeyrn begat Cunedda, Cunedda begat Ceredig, Ceredig begat Gwawl the mother of Gunleii (Gwynlliw), and Gundleius (Gwynlliw) begat the most holy Cadoc.

45. OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE CANONS OF NANTCARVAN CITY.

Saint Cadoc appointed thirty six Canons, who constantly and regularly served at the church of Nantcarvan, for he, by the election of God and man, entirely founded it, according to the divine proposal and as many court yards, in which the canons should have their habitations, and as many portions of land amounting to eighty acres, which were called from old times the property of the courts, and were cultivated by gardeners, who had the care of attending to gardens and orchards, and the keeping of hospitality, and also as many villages fi'om which they had necessaries of food and clothing.

46. OF THE POSSESSIONS OF THE AFORESAID CANONS.